Many studies have shown associations between a history of childhood trauma and more severe or complex clinical features of bipolar disorders (BD), including suicide attempts and earlier illness onset. However, the psychopathological mechanisms underlying these associations are still unknown. Here, we investigated whether affective lability mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and the severe clinical features of BD.
A total of 342 participants with BD were recruited from France and Norway. Diagnosis and clinical characteristics were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS) or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). Affective lability was measured using the short form of the Affective Lability Scale (ALS-SF). A history of childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Mediation analyses were performed using the SPSS process macro.
Using the mediation model and covariation for the lifetime number of major mood episodes, affective lability was found to statistically mediate the relationship between childhood trauma experiences and several clinical variables, including suicide attempts, mixed episodes and anxiety disorders. No significant mediation effects were found for rapid cycling or age at onset.
Our data suggest that affective lability may represent a psychological dimension that mediates the association between childhood traumatic experiences and the risk of a more severe or complex clinical expression of BD.
The article presents the results of studies of the anxious and depressed characteristics in elderly migrants of the Far North with arterial hypertension in the period of their stay in new climatic conditions with regard to their North experience, gender, age and timing of rehabilitation. There was a high frequency of disturbing-depressive symptomatology of the surveyed migrants in the Far North, the frequency and severity of which increases with age; women migrants of Far North are prone to depression 1,8 times, anxiety--3,2 times more often than men. With the increase of the period of stay in the new climate and geographical conditions, the severity and frequency of occurrence of anxiety and depression increase. The obtained results should be taken into account when building rehabilitation program and forecasting its effectiveness, while conducting psychotherapy and psychological prevention in this group of patients.
Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Department of Mental Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway. email@example.com.
Anxiety and depression are often co-occurring disorders, reflecting both homotypic and heterotypic continuity as possible developmental pathways. The present study aimed to examine homotypic and heterotypic continuities of anxiety and depression across 3 years in adolescence and young adulthood. Participants included patients presenting to psychiatric care with diagnoses of anxiety and/or depressive disorders aged 13-18 at T1 (N = 717, 44% initial participation rate) and aged 16-21 at T2 (N = 549, 80% follow-up participation rate). McNemar's mid-p test and ordinal proportional odds logistic regression analyses were used to assess changes in prevalence within and across diagnostic categories, respectively. More adolescents had an anxiety disorder (+ 11%), whereas fewer had a depressive disorder (- 11%), at T2 compared to T1. Of adolescents with anxiety and/or depression at T1, only 25% recovered or were non-symptomatic 3 years after referral to a psychiatric clinic. Homotypic continuity was observed for anxiety disorders in general (OR = 2.33), for phobic anxiety disorders (OR = 7.45), and for depressive disorders (OR = 2.15). For heterotypic continuity, depression predicted later anxiety (OR = 1.92), more specifically social anxiety (OR = 2.14) and phobic anxiety disorders (OR = 1.83). In addition, social anxiety predicted later generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 3.11). Heterotypic continuity was thus more common than homotypic continuity. For adolescents presenting with anxiety or depression, treatment should, therefore, target broad internalizing symptom clusters, rather than individual diagnoses. This may contribute to prevent future mental illness, particularly anxiety, in clinical samples.
To study the prevalence, structure and risk factors of emotional burn-out in narcologists, 90 practitioners in the field of narcology were studied. Emotional burn-out syndrome was found in 37.7% of narcologists. The stage of "resistance" characterized by the lowered interest in professional duties, sparing of emotions and feeling of being tired from interpersonal contacts was observed most frequently. Emotions were totally removed from the professional activity at the stage of "exhaustion". The emotional burn-out syndrome was most prevalent within the first 10 years of professional activity. The personality factors increasing the risk of burn-out were increased impulsiveness, lowered control of motivations and incentives, increased rigidity, inertness of mental processes, inability to exclude the traumatic experiences. The ability to plan the problem solving process and act in a logic and consistent way decreased the risk of the burn-out syndrome while the increased self-control produced the increased level of anxiety and contributed to the burn-out syndrome.
A diagnosis of breast cancer is a key turning point in a woman's life that may lead to her experiencing severe and persistent distress and potentially presaging a psychiatric disorder, such as major depression. In Denmark an increased standardization of care and a short hospital stay policy minimize the time of medical and nursing surveillance. Consequently, there is the potential risk that distress goes unnoticed, and therefore, untreated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the experience of distress in Danish women taking part in surgical continuity of care for breast cancer.
A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach inspired by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur was conducted to explore the experience of distress in relation to surgical treatment and care for breast cancer. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 women who recently had surgery for breast cancer at six departments of breast surgery in Denmark from May 2013 to November 2013.
The understanding of the experience of distress in the period of surgical continuity of care for breast cancer is augmented and improved through a discussion related to four identified themes: A time of anxiety, loss of identities, being treated as a person and being part of a system, drawing on theory and other research findings.
Distress experienced by women in the period following diagnosis arises from multiple sources. Support and care must be based on the woman's individual experience of distress.
Childhood psychiatric disorders and their symptoms evince both within-disorder (homotypic) and between-disorder (heterotypic) continuities. These continuities may be due to earlier symptoms causing later symptoms or, alternatively, that the same (unknown) causes (e.g., genetics) are operating across time. Applying a novel data analytic approach, we disentangle these two explanations.
Participants in a Norwegian community study were assessed biennially from 4 to 10 years of age with clinical interviews (n = 1,042). Prospective reciprocal relations between symptoms of disorders were analyzed with a dynamic panel model within a structural equation framework, adjusting for all unmeasured time-invariant confounders and time-varying negative life-events.
Homotypic continuities in symptoms characterized all disorders; strongest for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (r = .32-.62), moderate for behavioral disorders (r = .31-.48) and for anxiety and depression (r = .15-.40), and stronger between 8 and 10 than between 4 and 6 years. Heterotypic continuity also characterized all disorders. A dynamic panel model showed that most continuities were due to unmeasured time-invariant factors rather than effects of earlier symptoms on later symptoms, although symptoms of behavioral disorders, which evinced two-year homotypic continuity (B = .14, 95% CI: .04, .25), did influence later symptoms of ADHD (B = .13, CI: .03, .23), and earlier ADHD symptoms influenced later anxiety disorder symptoms (B = .07, CI: .01, .12).
Homotypic and heterotypic continuities of symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders are mostly due to unobserved time-invariant factors. Nonetheless, symptoms of earlier behavioral disorders may affect later symptoms of such disorders and of ADHD, and ADHD may increase the risk of later anxiety. Thus, even if interventions do not alter basic etiological factors, symptom reduction may itself cause later symptom reduction.
Trait anxiety may predispose to anxiety disorders and cardiovascular events. We tested whether prenatal growth or postnatal growth from birth to 11 years of age and in adulthood predict trait anxiety in late adulthood.
Women (n = 951) and men (n = 753) reported trait anxiety using the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale at an average age of 63.4 years and growth was estimated from records.
Higher trait anxiety was predicted by smaller body size at birth, in infancy and in adulthood. Moreover, faster growth particularly from seven to 11 years of age and slower growth between 11 and 63 years predicted higher trait anxiety.
We found a pattern of pre- and postnatal growth that predisposed to higher trait anxiety in late adulthood. This pattern resembles that found to increase the risk of cardiovascular events and, thus, points to a shared common origin in a suboptimal prenatal and childhood developmental milieu.