Clinically significant anxiety symptoms are prevalent among the elderly, yet knowledge about the longitudinal course of anxiety symptoms in later life remains scarce. The goals of this study were to (a) characterize age trajectories of state anxiety symptoms in the second half of life, and (b) estimate genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in the age trajectory of state anxiety. This study was based on data from 1,482 participants in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging who were aged 50 and older at their first occasion (512 complete twin pairs, 458 singletons) and had up to 6 measurement occasions spanning 11 years. Consistent with life span developmental theories of age-related emotional change, anxiety symptom levels declined during the transition from midlife to the mid-60s, followed by a mild increase that gradually plateaued in the 80s. There were substantial individual differences in the age trajectory of anxiety. After accounting for effects of sex, cohort, mode of testing, and proximity to death, this longitudinal variation was partitioned into biometric sources. Nonshared environmental variance was highest in the late 60s and declined thereafter, whereas genetic variance increased at an accelerated pace from approximately age 60 onward. There was no evidence for effects of rearing or other shared environment on anxiety symptoms in later life. These findings highlight how the etiology of anxiety symptoms changes from midlife to old age.
Cites: Twin Res Hum Genet. 2007 Jun;10(3):423-3317564500
Cites: Acta Genet Med Gemellol (Roma). 1991;40(1):7-201950353
Structured diagnostic inter- views include items that evaluate physical etiologies for mood and anxiety disorders. The objective of this article was to assess the impact of such items.
A mental health survey in Canada collected data from n = 36,984 household residents. The lifetime prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders was calculated with and without exclusions due to physical causes.
Approximately 10% of subjects with a lifetime depressive disorder reported that all of their episodes were due to one or more physical cause. Many of the reported etiologies were implausible given the DSM-IV requirement that the disturbance be a "direct physiological consequence" of the physical cause. The results were similar for manic episodes and anxiety disorders.
Structured diagnostic interviews assess physical etiologies in ways that are subject to inconsistency and inaccuracy. Physical etiology items may bias estimates by introducing etiological opinions into the assessment of disorder frequency.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on urinary-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL), generic health indices, depression and anxiety in a population-representative sample of men and women, as research has linked LUTS with reduced HRQL and depression, but little is known about the effects of individual LUTS on HRQL, depression and anxiety. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional population-representative survey was conducted via the Internet in the USA, the UK and Sweden. Participants rated the frequency and symptom-specific bother of individual LUTS and condition-specific HRQL, generic health status, anxiety and depression. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate outcome differences by International Continence Society LUTS subgroups; logistic regressions were used to determine associations of LUTS and perception of bladder problems, anxiety and depression. RESULTS: The overall survey response rate was 59.2%; 30 000 subjects (14 139 men and 15 861 women) participated. Men and women with LUTS in the all LUTS subgroup (storage, voiding and postmicturition) reported the lowest levels of HRQL and highest levels of anxiety and depression, with 35.9% of men and 53.3% of women meeting self-reported screening criteria for clinical anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS, Anxiety > or =8), and 29.8% of men and 37.6% of women meeting self-reported criteria for clinical depression (HADS Depression > or =8). In both men and women, storage symptoms were significantly associated with greater perceived bladder impact, whereas voiding symptoms were not. Significant predictors of anxiety included nocturia, urgency, stress urinary incontinence, leaking during sexual activity, weak stream and split stream in women; and nocturia, urgency, incomplete emptying and bladder pain in men. For depression, weak stream, urgency and stress urinary incontinence were significant for women, and perceived frequency and incomplete emptying were significant for men. CONCLUSION: The negative effect of LUTS is apparent across several domains of HRQL and on overall perception of bladder problems, general health status and mental health. The high level of psychiatric morbidity in patients with multiple LUTS has important implications for treatment and highlights the need for further research to pinpoint specific mechanisms underlying this association.
Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders are commonly seen in clinical practice. The goal of this article is to review the available literature on the epidemiologic, etiologic, clinical, and management aspects of this comorbidity and formulate a set of evidence- and consensus-based recommendations. This article is part of a set of Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) Comorbidity Task Force papers.
We conducted a PubMed search of all English-language articles published between January 1966 and November 2010. The search terms were bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, cross-referenced with anxiety disorders/symptoms, panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Levels of evidence for specific interventions were assigned based on a priori determined criteria, and recommendations were developed by integrating the level of evidence and clinical opinion of the authors.
Comorbid anxiety symptoms and disorders have a significant impact on the clinical presentation and treatment approach for patients with mood disorders. A set of recommendations are provided for the management of bipolar disorder (BD) with comorbid anxiety and major depressive disorder (MDD) with comorbid anxiety with a focus on comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder, use of cognitive-behavioral therapy across mood and anxiety disorders, and youth with mood and anxiety disorders.
Careful attention should be given to correctly identifying anxiety comorbidities in patients with BD or MDD. Consideration of evidence- or consensus-based treatment recommendations for the management of both mood and anxiety symptoms is warranted.
The present study evaluated the main and interactive effects of level of smoking (cigarettes per day) and anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety and anxiety related sensations) in predicting panic and anxiety variables in an epidemiologically-defined sample of smokers from Moscow (n=95). The combination of high levels of anxiety sensitivity and smoking predicted agoraphobic avoidance, but not frequency of panic attacks during the past week. These findings suggest anxiety sensitivity may moderate the relation between level of smoking and prototypical panic psychopathology variables (panic attacks and agoraphobic avoidance) even after controlling for the theoretically-relevant factors of alcohol abuse and negative affect.
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of fatigue for persons following a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and to evaluate the relationship between fatigue and APOE genotype. As fatigue is often found to be influenced by anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance, these factors were also measured. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Thirty-one persons who sustained a MTBI were drawn from a population-based longitudinal study. Each person who sustained a MTBI was matched by age, gender, education and APOE genotype with two non-head injury controls. Self-reported pre- and post-injury incidence of fatigue, anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance was compared within-group and between groups. RESULTS: For the MTBI group, incidence of fatigue was almost twice as common post- than pre-injury, whereas there was no corresponding change in a non-injured control group. Within the MTBI-group, post-injury fatigue was particularly common for carriers of the APOE epsilon4 allele. CONCLUSIONS: Fatigue is common sequela after a MTBI and especially pronounced for carriers of the APOE epsilon4 allele.
Several studies have examined the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and anxiety disorders with inconsistent results. In order to help clarify this relationship, we investigated the association between CPA and current anxiety disorders while controlling for the following groups of factors: (1) demographics; (2) family background; (3) current socioeconomic status (SES); (4) current stressors; and (5) current mood disorders. Data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed. The sample included 12,481 respondents from the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The regional-level response rate was 84%. Fully 7.3% (n = 964) of respondents reported they had been physically abused as a child or adolescent by someone close to them and 4.4% (n = 540) reported they had been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder by a health professional. A significant association between CPA and anxiety disorders was found when controlling for demographic factors, family background, current SES and stressors (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.25, 2.08). The odds of anxiety disorders declined to non-significance when further statistical adjustments were made for current mood disorders. The findings of this research suggest that the relationship between CPA and anxiety may be largely explained by co-morbid mood disorders.
Studies using clinical and volunteer samples have reported an elevated prevalence of mood disorders in association with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Clinical studies using anxiety rating scales have reported inconsistent results, but studies using diagnostic instruments have reported that anxiety disorders may be even more strongly associated with arthritis than is depression. One study reported an association between lifetime substance use disorders and arthritis.
Data from iteration 1.2 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) were used. This was a large-scale national Canadian health survey which administered the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview to a sample of 36,984 subjects randomly selected from the national population. In the CCHS 1.2, subjects were asked whether they had been diagnosed by a health professional with arthritis or rheumatism.
Subjects reporting arthritis or rheumatism had an elevated prevalence of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. The strength of association resembled that seen in an omnibus category reporting any chronic condition, but was weaker than that seen with back pain or fibromyalgia. The effect of arthritis or rheumatism interacted with age, such that the odds ratios became smaller with increasing age. Mood and anxiety disorders, along with arthritis or rheumatism made an independent contribution to disability.
Arthritis is associated with psychiatric morbidity in the general population, and this morbidity is seen across a variety of mental disorders. The strength of association is consistent with that seen in persons with other self-reported medical conditions.
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 1991 Dec;148(12):1721-61957937
Cites: Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1989 Sep;11(5):320-72792744
The neuropsychic studies in convicts suggest that human exposure to multiple factors induces a severe acute stress that accordingly results in neuropsychic disorders and in more significant disruption of the body's performance. Due to the fact that tuberculosis occupies a certain place among all diseases; learning about his being ill becomes a much stronger psychotraumatizing factor to the convict. A combined exposure to various factors, including the disease itself, influences convicts' emotional reaction and has serious personality consequences that appear as altered mental state and limited social activity; as well as difficult adaptation to new living conditions and all these factors substantially influence the course and outcome of the disease.