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Admixture analysis of age at onset in major depressive disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121548
Source
Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2012 Nov-Dec;34(6):686-91
Publication Type
Article
Author
Tina Zhu
Vincenzo De Luca
Laura Ashley Gallaugher
Hanna O Woldeyohannes
Joanna K Soczynska
Sarah Szymkowicz
David J Muzina
Sidney H Kennedy
Roger S McIntyre
Author Affiliation
Clinical Research Department, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Toronto, Canada.
Source
Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2012 Nov-Dec;34(6):686-91
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age of Onset
Aged
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Marital status
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Odds Ratio
Ohio - epidemiology
Ontario - epidemiology
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the distributions of the age at onset (AAO) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) using admixture analysis and to determine the clinical differences between subgroups with different AAO.
Participants were administered the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview to obtain clinical data. Admixture analysis was performed using the STATA module DENORMIX to identify subgroups characterized by differences in AAO.
The best fit model was the three-component model with the following means, standard deviations and proportions: 14.60 (3.75) years (49.1%), 29.15 (6.75) years (34.1%) and 46.96 (6.06) years (16.8%) (?(2)=3.64, 2 df, P=.162). The three subgroups were divided by AAO of 22 and 40. After controlling for duration of illness, there were no significant differences between the three AAO subgroups in terms of gender and psychiatric family history. However, the early-onset subgroup was significantly more likely to report being single compared to the intermediate- and late-onset groups. The proportion of individuals meeting criteria for lifetime comorbid panic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder did not differ significantly between the AAO groups. However, the early-onset group reported a higher incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (5.1% vs. 1.7% and 1.2%, P=.086), although this was not statistically significant.
Our study identified three characteristically different AAO subgroups in individuals suffering from MDD. The subgroups may reflect different underlying neurobiological mechanisms involved.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22898442 View in PubMed
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Adolescents with fluctuating symptoms of eating disorders: a 1-year prospective study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157017
Source
J Adv Nurs. 2008 Jun;62(6):674-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2008
Author
Lea Hautala
Jouni Junnila
Hans Helenius
Aija-Mari Väänänen
Pirjo-Riitta Liuksila
Hannele Räihä
Maritta Välimäki
Simo Saarijärvi
Author Affiliation
Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Turku, and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic, Turku University Hospital, Finland. leahau@utu.fi
Source
J Adv Nurs. 2008 Jun;62(6):674-80
Date
Jun-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology - metabolism - psychology
Body Image
Disease Progression
Eating Disorders - epidemiology - metabolism - psychology
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Recurrence - prevention & control
Abstract
This paper is a report of a study to investigate the stability of self-reported eating disorder symptoms, factors associated with them and the predictors of their recurrence.
In western cultures, eating-related problems during adolescence are common but usually temporary. However, in approximately 10% of cases disordered eating is sustained, increasing the risk of a full-blown eating disorder. To distinguish adolescents with temporary eating problems from those whose problems are likely to continue, healthcare providers need to understand the progress of disordered eating and the features of high-risk adolescents.
The two-stage prospective survey was conducted with a school-based sample of adolescents aged 15-17 years. At baseline, in 2003-2004, the SCOFF ('Sick', 'Control', 'One', 'Fat' and 'Food') questionnaire was administered to students in the 9th year of schooling in Finland. Follow-up assessment took place 1 year later, and 372 students provided data at both assessments. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate which factors predict the recurrence of eating disorder symptoms, defined as the occurrence of eating disorder symptoms at both assessments.
Five per cent of the students reported eating disorder symptoms at both assessments. Typically, they had multiple psychological problems and health complaints. Anxiety perceived earlier in adolescence resulted in an estimated odds ratio of the logistic model of 20 for the recurrence of eating disorder symptoms.
Earlier anxiety rather than dissatisfaction with appearance had a statistically significant effect on the progress of eating problems. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm the results. Until further knowledge is available, nurses should follow-up all adolescents with disordered eating to identify a possible need for intervention.
PubMed ID
18503651 View in PubMed
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Adrenocortical functioning in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: examining subtypes of ADHD and associated comorbid conditions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153255
Source
J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2009 May;37(4):565-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2009
Author
Paul D Hastings
Isabel Fortier
William T Utendale
Louise R Simard
Philippe Robaey
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Centre for Research in Human Development, Concordia University, QC, Canada. Paul.Hastings@Concordia.ca
Source
J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2009 May;37(4):565-78
Date
May-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology - metabolism - psychology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - classification - epidemiology - metabolism - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Comorbidity
Humans
Hydrocortisone - metabolism
Male
Phlebotomy - psychology
Pituitary-Adrenal System - metabolism - physiopathology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Saliva - metabolism
Stress, Psychological - complications - metabolism
Wakefulness
Abstract
Disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function have been associated with varying forms of psychopathology in children. Studies suggesting children with ADHD have blunted HPA function have been complicated by the prevalence of comorbid diagnoses and heterogeneity of ADHD. The goals of this research were to assess the relations between waking and stress-response salivary cortisol levels and comorbid disruptive behavior (DBD) and anxiety (AnxD) disorders and problems in boys with ADHD, and to examine whether cortisol levels varied across ADHD subtypes. One hundred seventy elementary school-age boys with ADHD provided salivary cortisol at waking and in reaction to venipuncture. Parent reports were used to assess boys' psychiatric diagnoses and severity of behavioral problems. Boys' comorbid AnxD and anxiety problems were associated with greater cortisol reactivity, whereas boys' comorbid DBD and oppositional problems predicted diminished adrenocortical activity. Reactive cortisol increases were greatest in boys with ADHD and comorbid AnxD, but without DBD. ADHD subtypes were not differentially associated with waking, pre-stress baseline, or reactive cortisol levels. However, comorbid DBD predicted decreased cortisol reactivity in boys with inattentive and hyperactive subtypes of ADHD, but not in boys with combined subtype of ADHD. The results clarify previous patterns of distinct and divergent dysregulations of HPA function associated with boys' varying kinds of psychopathology.
PubMed ID
19132527 View in PubMed
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Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in an anxiety disorders population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144093
Source
CNS Neurosci Ther. 2011 Aug;17(4):221-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Michael Van Ameringen
Catherine Mancini
William Simpson
Beth Patterson
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. vanamer@mcmaster.ca
Source
CNS Neurosci Ther. 2011 Aug;17(4):221-6
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Impulse Control Disorders - epidemiology
Interview, Psychological
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Phobic Disorders - epidemiology
Prevalence
Abstract
Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a life-long, chronic disorder, which has its onset in childhood and is associated with significant functional impairment. ADHD appears to be highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, however, literature is lacking concerning ADHD/anxiety comorbidity. To that end, we examined the prevalence of ADHD in an anxiety disorder sample. Consecutive patients referred to an anxiety disorders clinic completed a variety of anxiety disorder self-report measures as well as the Adult ADHD self-report scale and were clinically assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and the ADHD module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Of the 129 patients assessed, the rate of adult ADHD was 27.9%. The mean age of the sample was 33.1 ± 12.5 years, and the mean baseline CGI-S was 4.6 ± 1.1 (moderate to marked severity). The majority of the sample was female (63.6%) and single (49.5%). The most common comorbid disorders associated with ADHD were major depressive disorder (53.8%), social phobia (38.5%), generalized anxiety disorder (23.1%), and impulse control disorders (30.8%). Individuals with ADHD had higher symptom severity scores for obsessive-compulsive disorder, (P= 0.05) and for GAD (P= 0.05) and reported a significantly earlier age of onset for depression as compared to those without (P= 0.05). The prevalence of adult ADHD was higher in our anxiety disorders clinic sample than found in the general population. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
PubMed ID
20406249 View in PubMed
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Adult children of problem drinkers in an urban community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature103202
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 1990 Feb;156:249-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1990
Author
N A el-Guebaly
J R Walker
C A Ross
R F Currie
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 1990 Feb;156:249-55
Date
Feb-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alcoholism - epidemiology
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Manitoba - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Parent-Child Relations
Prevalence
Urban Population
Abstract
In a medium-sized Canadian city, 581 randomly selected households were contacted and responded to a survey on the impact of parental alcohol problems. Twenty-two per cent of the respondents indicated that at least one of their parents had a drinking problem. The biological father was affected in 81%. Compared with the rest of the sample, the adult children of problem drinkers were younger but they did not differ in income or education. Adult children of problem drinkers were more likely to have parents who were divorced or separated; to be divorced, separated, or remarried themselves; to be heavy drinkers and have indications of alcohol problems; and to use more sources of help for problems with stress and anxiety and problems with alcohol. They did not differ from those without parental drinking problems on measures of current positive and negative affect.
PubMed ID
2317630 View in PubMed
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Adult social position and sick leave: the mediating effect of physical workload.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275793
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2015 Nov;41(6):542-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2015
Author
Karina Corbett
Jon Michaeal Gran
Petter Kristensen
Ingrid Sivesind Mehlum
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2015 Nov;41(6):542-53
Date
Nov-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology
Child
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Occupations - statistics & numerical data
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Workload - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
This study aimed to quantify how much of the adult social gradient in sick leave can be attributed to the mediating role of physical workload while accounting for the role of childhood and adolescent social position and neuroticism.
Our sample consisted of 2099 women and 1229 men from a Norwegian birth cohort study (born 1967-1976) who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (2006-2008) (HUNT3). Data on sick leave (defined as >16 calendar days; 2006-2009) and social position during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood were obtained from national registers. Study outcome was time-to-first sick leave spell. Physical workload and neuroticism were self-reported in HUNT3. Mediating effects through physical workload were estimated using a method based on the additive hazards survival model.
A hypothetical change from highest to lowest group in adult social position was, for women, associated with 51.6 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 24.7-78.5] additional spells per 100,000 person-days at risk, in a model adjusted for childhood and adolescent social position and neuroticism. The corresponding rate increase for men was 41.1 (95% CI 21.4-60.8). Of these additional spells, the proportion mediated through physical workload was 24% (95% CI 10-49) and 30% (95% CI 10-63) for women and men, respectively.
The effect of adult social position on sick leave was partly mediated through physical workload, even while accounting for earlier life course factors. Our findings provide support that interventions aimed at reducing physical workload among those with lower adult social position could reduce sick leave risk.
PubMed ID
26416156 View in PubMed
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Affective lability mediates the association between childhood trauma and suicide attempts, mixed episodes and co-morbid anxiety disorders in bipolar disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287299
Source
Psychol Med. 2017 Apr;47(5):902-912
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2017
Author
M. Aas
C. Henry
F. Bellivier
M. Lajnef
S. Gard
J-P Kahn
T V Lagerberg
S R Aminoff
T. Bjella
M. Leboyer
O A Andreassen
I. Melle
B. Etain
Source
Psychol Med. 2017 Apr;47(5):902-912
Date
Apr-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Adult Survivors of Child Adverse Events - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Age of Onset
Aged
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology - physiopathology
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology - physiopathology
Comorbidity
Female
France - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Psychotic Disorders - epidemiology - physiopathology
Suicide, Attempted - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Many studies have shown associations between a history of childhood trauma and more severe or complex clinical features of bipolar disorders (BD), including suicide attempts and earlier illness onset. However, the psychopathological mechanisms underlying these associations are still unknown. Here, we investigated whether affective lability mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and the severe clinical features of BD.
A total of 342 participants with BD were recruited from France and Norway. Diagnosis and clinical characteristics were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS) or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). Affective lability was measured using the short form of the Affective Lability Scale (ALS-SF). A history of childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Mediation analyses were performed using the SPSS process macro.
Using the mediation model and covariation for the lifetime number of major mood episodes, affective lability was found to statistically mediate the relationship between childhood trauma experiences and several clinical variables, including suicide attempts, mixed episodes and anxiety disorders. No significant mediation effects were found for rapid cycling or age at onset.
Our data suggest that affective lability may represent a psychological dimension that mediates the association between childhood traumatic experiences and the risk of a more severe or complex clinical expression of BD.
PubMed ID
27894372 View in PubMed
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Age, physical impairment, and symptoms of anxiety: a test of mediating and moderating factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199905
Source
Int J Aging Hum Dev. 1999;49(1):43-59
Publication Type
Article
Date
1999
Author
S. Schieman
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-2208, USA. schieman@umiami.ir.miami.edu
Source
Int J Aging Hum Dev. 1999;49(1):43-59
Date
1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Disabled Persons - psychology
Female
Humans
Least-Squares Analysis
Male
Mental health
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Sampling Studies
Sex Factors
Social Support
Abstract
This study examines the processes linking physical impairment with symptoms of anxiety. Analyses are based on a representative sample of 967 physically disabled adults (ages 20 to 90) from ten counties of southwestern Ontario, Canada Several hypotheses test the intervening role of disability characteristics, perceived health care efficacy, personal attributes, and social stratification resources. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses included sets of those intervening variables entered sequentially. Adjustment produces a significant reduction in the association between symptoms of anxiety and impairment--confirming the intervening role of healthcare efficacy and mastery. Moreover, impairment and mastery have synergistic effects such that higher mastery buffers against the anxiety associated with higher impairment. Other findings raise important questions about age, impairment, and the sense of mastery in the contest of healthcare and gender.
PubMed ID
10614832 View in PubMed
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Alcoholism and depression in adopted-out daughters of alcoholics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature13153
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1977 Jul;34(7):751-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1977
Author
D W Goodwin
F. Schulsinger
J. Knop
S. Mednick
S B Guze
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1977 Jul;34(7):751-5
Date
Jul-1977
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adoption
Adult
Alcohol Drinking
Alcoholism - complications - epidemiology - genetics
Amnesia - etiology
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology
Comparative Study
Culture
Denmark
Depression - genetics
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Personality Disorders - epidemiology
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Social Environment
Socialization
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
Forty-nine daughters of alcoholics were compared to 47 daughters of nonalcholics; both groups of women (average age, 35 years) had been adopted by nonrelatives early in life. Two women in each group were alcoholic or problem drinkers. Although this is above the expected rate of alcoholism among women, the numbers are too small to draw definite conclusions. Almost all were light drinkers. Daughters of alcoholics had no more depression than controls, indicating that alcoholism in the biological parents did not increase the risk of depression in daughters raised by foster parents. Environmental factors may be important in both alcoholism and depression in women, since both tended to be correlated with psychopathology in the foster parents.
PubMed ID
879972 View in PubMed
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Analysis and management of geriatric anxiety.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature243926
Source
Int J Aging Hum Dev. 1982;15(3):197-211
Publication Type
Article
Date
1982
Author
J F Sallis
K L Lichstein
Source
Int J Aging Hum Dev. 1982;15(3):197-211
Date
1982
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged - psychology
Anti-Anxiety Agents - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Canada
Cognition
Drug Interactions
Humans
Models, Psychological
Psychophysiologic Disorders - psychology
Relaxation Therapy
Stress, Psychological - psychology
United States
Abstract
In this essay, the prevalence, negative health implications, and clinical management of geriatric anxiety are reviewed. Despite disproportionately high rates of anxiety amongst the elderly, little research effort has been directed at this problem. An interactive model of geriatric anxiety is proposed, whereby physical disease and anxiety processes enter into reciprocal stimulation as a function of 1) diminished capacity to withstand stress, and 2) hypervigilance of stress symptomatology. To date, pharmacotherapy has been virtually the sole approach to managing geriatric anxiety, although special hazards accrue to the elderly when anxiolytics are used. Potentially useful psychological treatments including relaxation, cognitive restructuring, activity structuring, and prevention are outlined. It is concluded that the potential human and financial rewards of increased understanding and control or geriatric anxiety are substantial.
PubMed ID
6134682 View in PubMed
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251 records – page 1 of 26.