Social anxiety is a common problem in psychotic disorders. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating version (LSAS-SR) is a widely used instrument to capture different aspects of social anxiety, but its psychometric properties have not been tested in this patient group. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR in patients with first episode psychosis, to investigate whether it differentiated between active and passive social withdrawal and to test which clinical factors contributed to current level of social anxiety.
A total of 144 first episode psychosis patients from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) study were included at the time of first treatment. Diagnoses were set according to the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-1) for DSM-IV. A factor analysis was carried out and the relationship of social anxiety to psychotic and general symptomatology measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was evaluated. Possible contributors to social anxiety were analyzed using multiple hierarchic regression analysis.
The factor analysis identified three subscales: public performance, social interaction and observation. All three subscales showed satisfactory psychometric properties, acceptable convergent and discriminate properties, and confirmed previous findings in social anxiety samples. Self-esteem explained a significant amount of the variance in social anxiety, even after adjusting for the effects of delusions, suspiciousness and depression.
The study shows that the LSAS-SR can be used in this patient group, that social anxiety is strongly related to both behavioral social avoidance and to self-esteem. The results support the use of this measure in assessment of social anxiety in both clinical settings and in research.
The DSM-5 Field Trials were designed to obtain precise (standard error,0.1) estimates of the intraclass kappa asa measure of the degree to which two clinicians could independently agree on the presence or absence of selected DSM-5 diagnoses when the same patient was interviewed on separate occasions, in clinical settings, and evaluated with usual clinical interview methods.
Eleven academic centers in the United States and Canada were selected,and each was assigned several target diagnoses frequently treated in that setting.Consecutive patients visiting a site during the study were screened and stratified on the basis of DSM-IV diagnoses or symptomatic presentations. Patients were randomly assigned to two clinicians for a diagnostic interview; clinicians were blind to any previous diagnosis. All data were entered directly via an Internet-based software system to a secure central server. Detailed research design and statistical methods are presented in an accompanying article.
There were a total of 15 adult and eight child/adolescent diagnoses for which adequate sample sizes were obtained to report adequately precise estimates of the intraclass kappa. Overall, five diagnoses were in the very good range(kappa=0.60–0.79), nine in the good range(kappa=0.40–0.59), six in the questionable range (kappa = 0.20–0.39), and three in the unacceptable range (kappa values,0.20). Eight diagnoses had insufficient sample sizes to generate precise kappa estimates at any site.
Most diagnoses adequately tested had good to very good reliability with these representative clinical populations assessed with usual clinical interview methods. Some diagnoses that were revised to encompass a broader spectrum of symptom expression or had a more dimensional approach tested in the good to very good range.
We examined physician characteristics associated with the recognition of depression and anxiety in primary care. Fifty-five physicians treating a total of 600 patients completed measures of psychosocial orientation, psychological mindedness, self-rating of sensitivity to hidden emotions, and a video test of sensitivity to nonverbal communication. Patients were classified as cases of psychiatric distress based on the CES-D scale and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Physician recognition was determined by notation of any psychosocial diagnosis in the medical charts over the ensuing 12 months. Of 192 patients scoring 16 or above on the CES-D, 44% (83) were recognized as psychiatrically distressed. Three findings were central to this study: 1) Physicians who are more sensitive to nonverbal expressions of emotion made more psychiatric or psychosocial assessment of their patients and appeared to be over-inclusive in their judgments of psychosocial problems; 2) Physicians who tended to blame depressed patients for causing, exaggerating, or prolonging their depression made fewer psychosocial assessments and were less accurate in detecting psychiatric distress; 3) False positive labeling of patients who had no evidence of psychiatric distress was rare. Surprisingly, more severe medical illness increased the likelihood of labeling and accurate recognition. Physician factors that increased recognition may indicate a greater willingness to formulate a psychiatric diagnosis and an ability notice nonverbal signs of distress.
The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) could be subdivided into clinically meaningful groups reflecting the complex patterns of eating disorder symptoms and personality characteristics that face the clinician.
Seventy patients diagnosed with BN using the Eating Disorder Examination were assessed with measures of negative affect, attachment patterns, and interpersonal problems. An exploratory hierarchical cluster analysis was performed.
The study found two main subtypes differing primarily in terms of symptom severity and level of negative affect, but these subtypes were further subdivided into four clinically relevant subtypes: A dietary restraint/negative affect/high symptomatic group, an emotionally overcontrolled group, a low dietary restraint/emotionally underregulated group, and a high functioning/securely attached group.
The study indicates that cluster-analytic studies, including a broad range of instruments measuring eating disorder symptoms as well as negative affect, relational patterns, and other personality characteristics, may contribute to an integration of previously suggested models of subtypes in BN.