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The 10-year course of mental health, quality of life, and exile life functioning in traumatized refugees from treatment start.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311143
Source
PLoS One. 2020; 15(12):e0244730
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2020
Author
Marianne Opaas
Tore Wentzel-Larsen
Sverre Varvin
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies (NKVTS), Oslo, Norway.
Source
PLoS One. 2020; 15(12):e0244730
Date
2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety - psychology - therapy
Depression - psychology - therapy
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental health
Middle Aged
Norway
Psychotherapy
Quality of Life - psychology
Refugees - psychology
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - psychology - therapy
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Refugee patients with severe traumatic experiences may need mental health treatment, but treatment results vary, and there is scarcity of studies demonstrating refugees' long-term health and well-being after treatment. In a 10-year naturalistic and longitudinal study, 54 multi-origin traumatized adult refugee patients, with a background of war and persecution, and with a mean stay in Norway of 10.5 years, were recruited as they entered psychological treatment in mental health specialist services. The participants were interviewed face-to-face with multiple methods at admittance, and at varying points in time during and after psychotherapy. The aim was to study the participants' trajectories of symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression, four aspects of quality of life, and two aspects of exile life functioning. Linear mixed effects analyses included all symptoms and quality of life measures obtained at different times and intervals for the participants. Changes in exile life functioning was investigated by exact McNemar tests. Participants responded to the quantitative assessments up to eight times. Length of therapy varied, with a mean of 61.3 sessions (SD = 74.5). The participants improved significantly in symptoms, quality of life, and exile life functioning. Improvement in symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression yielded small effect sizes (r = .05 to .13), while improvement in quality of psychological and physical health yielded medium effect sizes (r = .38 and .32). Thus, long-time improvement after psychological therapy in these severely traumatized and mostly chronified refugee patients, was more notable in quality of life and exile life functioning than in symptom reduction. The results imply that major symptom reduction may not be attainable, and may not be the most important indication of long-term improvement among refugees with long-standing trauma-related suffering. Other indications of beneficial effects should be applied as well.
PubMed ID
33382807 View in PubMed
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Abortion-related worries, fears and preparedness: a Swedish Web-based exploratory and retrospective qualitative study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature310198
Source
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2019 Oct; 24(5):380-389
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2019
Author
Susanne Georgsson
Stina Krautmeyer
Emilia Sundqvist
Tommy Carlsson
Author Affiliation
The Swedish Red Cross University College , Huddinge , Sweden.
Source
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2019 Oct; 24(5):380-389
Date
Oct-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Abortion, Induced - psychology
Adult
Anxiety - psychology
Fear - psychology
Female
Humans
Information Seeking Behavior
Internet
Patient satisfaction
Pregnancy
Qualitative Research
Retrospective Studies
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Objective: A survey was conducted to explore worries, fears and preparedness relating to the recollected experience of having an induced abortion. Methods: The Web-based survey was carried out in Sweden among 185 women. Respondents answered open-ended questions and gave retrospective self-reported ratings about their abortion-related worries, fears, preparedness and satisfaction with information obtained from health professionals and the Web. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistics. Results: Worries and fears included the abortion process, physical reactions and psychosocial aspects. The abortion was associated with unexpected events, including the abortion process, poor health professional treatment and support, and side effects and complications. Respondents described a lack of preparatory information, leading to uncertainties due to insufficient information. Many searched for Web-based information, but respondents experienced difficulties finding high-quality sources. Respondents also recounted that the preparatory information received did not reflect the actual abortion experience. Conclusion: There is room for improvement with regard to informing, preparing and supporting women who seek an abortion. The results emphasise the importance of health professionals' giving sufficient preparatory information to enable preparedness and lessen the impact of possible unexpected events. There is a need for the development of a trustworthy Web-based service that contains honest and high-quality information.
PubMed ID
31368829 View in PubMed
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Acceptance of Tinnitus As an Independent Correlate of Tinnitus Severity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271188
Source
Ear Hear. 2015 Jul-Aug;36(4):e176-82
Publication Type
Article
Author
Hugo Hesser
Ellinor Bånkestad
Gerhard Andersson
Source
Ear Hear. 2015 Jul-Aug;36(4):e176-82
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Anxiety - psychology
Attitude to Health
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Psychological
Multivariate Analysis
Regression Analysis
Severity of Illness Index
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Tinnitus - physiopathology - psychology
Abstract
Tinnitus is the experience of sounds without an identified external source, and for some the experience is associated with significant severity (i.e., perceived negative affect, activity limitation, and participation restriction due to tinnitus). Acceptance of tinnitus has recently been proposed to play an important role in explaining heterogeneity in tinnitus severity. The purpose of the present study was to extend previous investigations of acceptance in relation to tinnitus by examining the unique contribution of acceptance in accounting for tinnitus severity, beyond anxiety and depression symptoms.
In a cross-sectional study, 362 participants with tinnitus attending an ENT clinic in Sweden completed a standard set of psychometrically examined measures of acceptance of tinnitus, tinnitus severity, and anxiety and depression symptoms. Participants also completed a background form on which they provided information about the experience of tinnitus (loudness, localization, sound characteristics), other auditory-related problems (hearing problems and sound sensitivity), and personal characteristics.
Correlational analyses showed that acceptance was strongly and inversely related to tinnitus severity and anxiety and depression symptoms. Multivariate regression analysis, in which relevant patient characteristics were controlled, revealed that acceptance accounted for unique variance beyond anxiety and depression symptoms. Acceptance accounted for more of the variance than anxiety and depression symptoms combined. In addition, mediation analysis revealed that acceptance of tinnitus mediated the direct association between self-rated loudness and tinnitus severity, even after anxiety and depression symptoms were taken into account.
Findings add to the growing body of work, supporting the unique and important role of acceptance in tinnitus severity. The utility of the concept is discussed in relation to the development of new psychological models and interventions for tinnitus severity.
PubMed ID
25665072 View in PubMed
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Active and social life is associated with lower non-social fearfulness in pet dogs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305072
Source
Sci Rep. 2020 08 13; 10(1):13774
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-13-2020
Author
Emma Hakanen
Salla Mikkola
Milla Salonen
Jenni Puurunen
Sini Sulkama
César Araujo
Hannes Lohi
Author Affiliation
Department of Veterinary Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Sci Rep. 2020 08 13; 10(1):13774
Date
08-13-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Anxiety - psychology
Behavior, Animal
Dog Diseases - psychology
Dogs
Fear - psychology
Female
Finland
Human-Animal Bond
Humans
Male
Noise - adverse effects
Pets - psychology
Socialization
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Behavioural problems are leading welfare issues in domestic dogs. In particular, anxiety-related behavioural problems, such as fearfulness and noise sensitivity are highly prevalent conditions that cause distress to fearful dogs. To better understand the environmental factors associated with non-social fear, including noise sensitivity, fear of novel situations, and fear of surfaces and heights, a large online survey including data on 13,700 Finnish pet dogs was performed by the dog owners. After fulfilling inclusion criteria, this data consisted of 9,613 dogs with fear of fireworks, 9,513 dogs with fear of thunder, 6,945 dogs with fear of novel situations, and 2,932 dogs with fear of surfaces and heights. Logistic regression analyses revealed that dogs with frequent non-social fear had experienced less socialisation during puppyhood, were more often neutered, had inexperienced owners, lived without conspecifics, participated less frequently in activities or training, and lived in more urban environments. In addition, we identified several breed differences, and a tendency of more common non-social fear in small dog breeds, which suggests a genetic background. Non-social fearfulness has a negative effect on well-being of the dogs. Our findings suggest that the socialisation and the living environment and the value of other dogs' company and owner interaction via activities and training may improve the well-being of the dogs.
PubMed ID
32792641 View in PubMed
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Acuity and anxiety from the patient's perspective in the emergency department.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106257
Source
J Emerg Nurs. 2013 Nov;39(6):534-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Anna Ekwall
Author Affiliation
Malmö, Sweden. Electronic address: anna.ekwall@skane.se.
Source
J Emerg Nurs. 2013 Nov;39(6):534-8
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anxiety - psychology
Attitude to Health
Cross-Sectional Studies
Emergency Nursing - methods
Emergency Service, Hospital
Female
Health Communication - methods
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nursing Staff, Hospital
Patient Acuity
Patient Satisfaction - statistics & numerical data
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Sweden
Triage
Young Adult
Abstract
Knowledge of a patient's perception of her medical needs and urgency may make it possible for emergency nurses to communicate the triage decision and make the patient understand the assessment and triage category. The aim of this study was to compare the patients' own assessments of their acuity to the triage nurse's assessment, as well as describe patient satisfaction and levels of anxiety.
A prospective, cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample consisted of 72 patients, 54% of whom were women. Median age was 55.9 years.
Agreement between the nurse and patient regarding acuity and triage category was rare. This may have consequences for patient safety, because patients may seek care at an inappropriate level, in both directions. Communication between the nurse and patient during the waiting time in the emergency department is very important, both for patient satisfaction and reduction of anxiety levels.
Helping the patient understand the severity of his medical condition and providing information about the triage category and its implications for care in the emergency department should be a focus in communication between the triage nurse and patient. It may well be that the patient's anxiety level is reduced and satisfaction increased if the triage code is known and understood by the patient.
Notes
Comment In: J Emerg Nurs. 2014 May;40(3):21024810503
PubMed ID
24209586 View in PubMed
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Adult attachment and male aggression in couple relationships: the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction as mediators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142530
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2011 Jul;26(10):1982-2003
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
Benoit Fournier
Audrey Brassard
Phillip R Shaver
Author Affiliation
Université de Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada.
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2011 Jul;26(10):1982-2003
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aggression - psychology
Anxiety - psychology
Canada
Communication
Counseling
Female
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Middle Aged
Personal Satisfaction
Questionnaires
Spouse Abuse - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Spouses - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
This study examines men's domestic aggression as a function of attachment insecurities, considering the mediating roles of the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction. The sample included 55 Canadian men undergoing counseling for relationship difficulties including aggression. The men completed questionnaires assessing physical and psychological aggression, the two dimensions of attachment insecurity (anxiety over abandonment and avoidance of intimacy), the demand-withdraw communication pattern, relationship satisfaction, and social desirability (a control measure). As predicted, there was an association between attachment anxiety and aggression (both physical and psychological), which was mediated by the man demands/woman withdraws (MD/WW) pattern (as reported by the men). There was no evidence of mediation by the woman demands/man withdraws pattern, as reported by the men. Relationship satisfaction mediated the association between attachment anxiety and psychological (but not physical) aggression, but did not mediate the link between avoidance and aggression (physical or psychological). Limitations and clinical implications are discussed.
PubMed ID
20587474 View in PubMed
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Affective responses to changes in day length in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45723
Source
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005 Jun;30(5):438-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
Brian J Prendergast
Randy J Nelson
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. prendergast@uchicago.edu
Source
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005 Jun;30(5):438-52
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anxiety - psychology
Attention - physiology
Behavior, Animal - physiology
Body Weight - physiology
Conflict (Psychology)
Cricetinae
Depression - psychology
Emotions - physiology
Exploratory Behavior - physiology
Female
Light
Motor Activity - physiology
Muscle, Skeletal - physiology
Phodopus
Photoperiod
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Smell - physiology
Startle Reaction - physiology
Swimming - psychology
Abstract
The goal of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that day length influences anxious- and depressive-like behaviors in reproductively photoperiodic rodents. Male and female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were exposed to long (16 h light/day; LD) or short (8 h light/day; SD) photoperiods beginning at the time of weaning (day 18). Two weeks later hamsters were subjected to a series of behavioral tests to quantify anxiety-and depressive-like behaviors. In an elevated plus maze, SD males exhibited longer latencies to enter an open arm, entered fewer open arms, and spent less time exploring open arms relative to LD hamsters. SD males were likewise slower to enter either of the distal arms of a completely enclosed T-maze, and in a hunger-motivated exploratory paradigm SD males were slower to enter an open arena for food as compared to LD males. In a forced-swimming model of behavioral despair, SD males exhibited immobility sooner, more often, and for a greater total amount of time relative to LD males. Total activity levels, aversiveness to light, olfactory function, and limb strength were unaffected by SD, suggesting that the behavioral changes consequent to SD are not attributable to sensory or motor deficits, but rather may arise from changes in general affective state. The anxiogenic and depressive effects of SD were largely absent in female hamsters. Together the results indicate that adaptation to short photoperiods is associated with increased expression of anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors relative to those observed under LD photoperiod conditions.
PubMed ID
15721056 View in PubMed
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An explorative analysis of the recruitment of patients to a randomised controlled trial in adolescents with dental anxiety.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272667
Source
Swed Dent J. 2014;38(1):47-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Ulla Wide Boman
Anders G Broberg
Larisa Krekmanova
Marie Staberg
Carina Svensson
Agneta Robertson
Source
Swed Dent J. 2014;38(1):47-54
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Cognitive Therapy
Dental Anxiety - psychology - therapy
Dental Care - methods - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Motivation
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - psychology
Patient Selection
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are considered to provide the most reliable evidence on the efficacy of interventions. The aim of this study was to describe the recruitment process of an RCT study set up to evaluate a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) intervention programme for adolescent patients with dental anxiety (DA). The participants were recruited from a consecutive sample of adolescent patients (12-19 yrs old) referred for DA to a specialised pediatric dentistry clinic. Age, gender, and reason for referral were recorded for the possible eligible patients as part of the drop-out analysis of the recruitment process. Participants were then randomized to the intervention (CBT integrated with dental treatment) or control (adapted dental treatment) condition. In the recruitment process, 138 possible eligible patients met inclusion criteria, of these 55 were enrolled, 44 declined participation and 39 patients were excluded.The patients enrolled in the RCT did not differ from the non-participants with regard to age, gender or cause of referral. As a result of difficulties in the recruitment process, the study period was extended. The considerable proportion of non-participants as evident from the recruitment process may pose a threat to the external validity of the clinical trial. From a clinical perspective, the reasons for the lack of motivation to participate in behavioural interventions and the failure to appear warrant further investigation.
PubMed ID
26995811 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
J Adolesc Health Care. 1981 Dec;2(2):133-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1981
Author
S V Levine
Source
J Adolesc Health Care. 1981 Dec;2(2):133-7
Date
Dec-1981
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Psychology
Adult
Alcoholism - psychology
Anxiety - psychology
Canada
Child
Female
Homosexuality
Humans
Male
Newspapers
Peer Group
Self Concept
Sex Offenses
Social Isolation
Writing
Abstract
The Canadian nationally syndicated newspaper column entitled "Youth Clinic" during a four-year period received over 4,000 letters from young people. This article highlights the prominent themes of these letters and points out the recurrent concerns of those youth who are predisposed to writing. The most common themes have to do with the adolescents' sense of isolation from peers and adults. The difficulties in adequately responding to genuine but anonymous letters, the problems inherent in only publishing a small proportion of the letters received, and the potential uses of such a column, are discussed.
PubMed ID
7327985 View in PubMed
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Anxiety and dental fear in a group of parenteral drug addicts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature74121
Source
Scand J Dent Res. 1986 Jun;94(3):241-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1986
Author
F. Scheutz
Source
Scand J Dent Res. 1986 Jun;94(3):241-7
Date
Jun-1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety - psychology
Dental Care - psychology
Dental Caries - psychology
Fear
Female
Health Education, Dental
Humans
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Substance-Related Disorders - psychology
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate whether general anxiety and dental anxiety were more common in a group of parenteral drug addicts. 41 drug addicts (mean = 27.4 yr) attending a dental clinic in Aarhus in Denmark participated. A randomly sampled reference group comprising 350 individuals living in Aarhus and with similar age distribution was selected from the Central Person Register. Questionnaires with social and educational data and three self-report rating scales, namely Corah's dental anxiety scale (CDAS) and Spielberger's State-Trait anxiety inventory's two scales (STAI-State and STAI-Trait) were completed by the participants. Response rates were 95.6% and 89.3% for drug addicts and controls, respectively. Median CDAS, STAI-State, and STAI-Trait were 10, 46 and 44 in the addicts which was statistically significantly higher than in the general population. These differences were still present when the addicts were compared to a subsample from the reference group with a better matching of educational and social background factors. Spearman's correlation coefficient between CDAS and STAI-State, CDAS and STAI-Trait, and STAI-State and STAI-Trait were 0.57, 0.49 and 0.50, respectively, which were significant and moderately high correlations. Finally, anxiety levels were similar irrespective of caries experience.
PubMed ID
3461544 View in PubMed
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264 records – page 1 of 27.