An estimated 300?000 individuals are treated for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the United States and Canada annually. Little is known about the proportion or characteristics of those who decline treatment.
To define the proportion of individuals in various groups who accept LTBI treatment and to identify factors associated with non-acceptance of treatment.
Persons offered LTBI treatment at 30 clinics in 12 Tuberculosis Epidemiologic Studies Consortium sites were prospectively enrolled. Multivariate regression models were constructed based on manual stepwise assessment of potential predictors.
Of 1692 participants enrolled from March 2007 to September 2008, 1515 (89.5%) accepted treatment and 177 (10.5%) declined. Predictors of acceptance included believing one could personally spread TB germs, having greater TB knowledge, finding clinic schedules convenient and having low acculturation. Predictors of non-acceptance included being a health care worker, being previously recommended for treatment and believing that taking medicines would be problematic.
This is the first prospective multisite study to examine predictors of LTBI treatment acceptance in general clinic populations. Greater efforts should be made to increase acceptance among health care workers, those previously recommended for treatment and those who expect problems with LTBI medicines. Ensuring convenient clinic schedules and TB education to increase knowledge could be important for ensuring acceptance.
The analysis of tuberculosis lethal outcomes occurring in a large antituberculous hospital in 1990-1992 showed that: mean age of the dead made up 49.7 +/- 0.8 years, 70.9% of them did not work (46.3% were invalids due to tuberculosis). 32% of the deceased were observed by the specialist no longer than a year, 1/6 were dead within treatment month 1.68% of the above patients were admitted to the hospital in grave condition. Intensive chemotherapy for advanced destructive tuberculosis with bacterial discharge was given to the majority of the patients. 57.4% of the patients did not survive a month of hospital stay, 24.3% were dead within the first week in hospital. 84.6% of the lethal outcomes resulted from progression of pulmonary tuberculosis.
KIL Consortium Sustainable TB Service Project, Mycobacterium Reference Unit, Department of Microbiology and Infection, Guy's King's and St Thomas' Medical School, King's College, King's College Hospital (Dulwich), East Dulwich Grove, London, UK.
Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing exposes patients to the risk of side effects and encourages the development of drug resistance across antimicrobial groups used for respiratory infections including tuberculosis (TB).
Determine among Russian general practitioners and specialists: (1) sources of antimicrobial prescribing information; (2) patterns of antimicrobial prescribing for common respiratory diseases and differences between primary and specialist physicians; (3) whether drug resistance in TB might be linked to over-prescribing of anti-TB drugs for respiratory conditions.
Point-prevalence cross-sectional survey involving all 28 primary care, general medicine and TB treatment institutions in Samara City, Russian Federation. In this two-stage study, a questionnaire was used to examine doctors' antimicrobial (including TB drugs) prescribing habits, sources of prescribing information, management of respiratory infections and a case scenario ('common cold'). This was followed by a case note review of actual prescribing for consecutive patients with respiratory diseases at three institutions.
Initial questionnaires were completed by 81.3% (425/523) of physicians with 78.4% working in primary care. Most doctors used standard textbooks to guide their antimicrobial practice but 80% made extensive use of pharmaceutical company information. A minority of 1.7% would have inappropriately prescribed antibiotics for the case and 0.8-1.8% of respondents would have definitely prescribed TB drugs for non-TB conditions. Of the 495 respiratory cases, 25% of doctors prescribed an antibiotic for a simple upper respiratory tract infection and of 8 patients with a clinical diagnosis of TB, 4 received rifampicin monotherapy alone. Ciprofloxacin was widely but inappropriately used.
Doctors rely on information provided by pharmaceutical companies; there was inappropriate antibiotic prescribing.
To estimate resistance rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antituberculosis drugs in relation to previous treatment, country of origin, age and duration of residence in Canada.
Retrospective chart review of all culture-positive tuberculosis diagnosed between 1982 and 1994 in immigrants to Alberta.
A total of 753 immigrants with culture-positive tuberculosis were studied; 131 patients (17.4%, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 14.7, 20.1) had strains resistant to one or more of the first-line medications (isoniazid [INH], rifampin [RIF], ethambutol [EMB], pyrazinamide [PZA], and streptomycin [SM]). Initial and secondary resistance rates were 16.4% and 30.3%, respectively (P = 0.003, Odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% CI 1.3, 3.8). Resistance occurred in 22.2% of patients 40 years of age and under, and in 13.8% of those over 40 years of age (P = 0.005, OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2, 2.6). Resistant M. tuberculosis was isolated from 20.4% of those who had lived in Canada for less than 15 years, and in 9.0% of those who had immigrated to Canada more than 15 years before diagnosis (P
to develop a procedure for calculating needs for antituberculous drugs (ATD).
A unified E-form (UEF) was developed as an "Excel" file with the underlying invariable formulas and coefficients for the computer-based calculation of ATD needs in any subject of the Russian Federation. The needs were estimated using the average number of tablets (capsules, vials) of each ATD required per man/course, by taking into account the conventional chemotherapy regimens, the duration of chemoprophylaxis, antirecurrent courses, ATD test therapy, a treatment regimen for complications due to BCG vaccination. Information on the inventory of ATDs at the end of the previous year and their estimated deliveries from various sources was additionally considered. Data to be filled in the UEF were obtained from the reporting documents: 1) TB Form No. 2 "Information on patients registered for treatment" approved by Order No. 50 "On Consummation of Recording and Reporting Documents as to Tuberculosis Monitoring" issued by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation on February 13, 2002; 2) Form No. 030-4/y "Tuberculosis Patient Follow-Up Schedule"; and 3) Form No. 33 "Information on Patients with Tuberculosis" approved by Regulation No. 80 issued by the Russian Statistics Agency on November 11, 2005. The filled-in UEFs were obtained from 82 subjects of the Russian Federation.
among all the contingents of antituberculosis dispensaries, who were given ATDs, the absolute majority was the persons receiving chemoprophylaxis. Only 18.3% received chemotherapy for active tuberculosis. Of them, 56.8 and 15.3% were treated in accordance with chemotherapy regimens 1 and 3, respectively. The regimes (2B and 4) using second-line agents were given least frequently (7.1 and 7.1%, respectively). Comparing the data from Form No. 33 and those obtained on filling in UEF showed with a fair degree of assurance that the treatment of patients with a chronic tuberculous process had been incompletely registered. Personified registration of patients with multidrug Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance should be performed in order to have objective information on the scope of required medical aid and the real calculation of needs for second-line ATDs. For unified calculation of needs for ATDs for chemotherapy, it is necessary to introduce a standardized approach to its performance at different dispensaries. By taking into account that ATDs are purchased and dispensed free of change, one should have a responsible attitude to consuming drugs, determining indications for their usage, and filling the UEF. TB Form No. 2 "Information on patients registered for treatment" and Register No, 03-TB/y "Register of patients with tuberculosis" should be improved, by adding data on the number of patients receiving chemoprophylaxis, antirecurrent courses, test therapy, and treatment of complications due to BCG vaccination.
SETTING: A study carried out in 1996 in four districts representing south and north as well as urban and rural areas of Vietnam. OBJECTIVE: To explore gender differences in knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards tuberculosis and its treatment, and how these factors influence patients' compliance with treatment. DESIGN: Sixteen focus group discussions were performed by a multi-disciplinary research team from Vietnam and Sweden. Analysis was performed using modified Grounded Theory technique, specifically evaluating gender differences. RESULTS: Women were believed to be more compliant than men. Insufficient knowledge and individual cost during treatment were reported as main obstacles to compliance among men (poor patient compliance), while sensitivity to interaction with health staff and stigma in society (poor health staff and system compliance) were reported as the main obstacles among women. CONCLUSIONS: It is time to adopt a more comprehensive and gender-sensitive approach to compliance, which incorporates patient compliance, doctor compliance and system compliance, in order to fully support individual patients in their efforts to comply with treatment.
In 100 patients with various types of pulmonary tuberculosis who were residents in Eastern Siberia, somatic types and glucose postload sugar curves and immunological status were studied and the findings were compared with the specific features of the process and its dynamics during chemotherapy. Thoracomuscular and thoracogracial somatic types were found in two thirds of cases among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Persons with these somatic types developed chiefly infiltrative tuberculosis. Uncorrectable abnormalities in the sugar curves were detected in all somatic types in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Most substantial carbohydrate metabolic changes (curves of the rigid pattern) are associated with the asthenic constitution. Immunological changes are unassociated with the type of constitution.