A study was made of clinical effectiveness and mechanism of action of the inhibitor of the specific 3',5'-cAMP phosphodiesterase papaverine in a therapeutic complex of measures designed to treat RA patients involving an immunodepressive preparation free from any cytopenic effect prospidin as a basic mediator. It has been shown that the papaverine antiarthritic action is associated with its positive effects on the unspecific component of the immune-complex inflammation, viz. processes of lipid peroxidation, activity of the antioxidant system of defence as well as on the vascular tone and microcirculation. All this improves tissue metabolism, and in this way enhances efficiency of RA basic therapy.
To compare access to biologic therapies for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) across Canada, and to identify differences in provincial regulations and criteria for access.
Between June and August 2010, we compiled the provincial guidelines for reimbursement of biologic drugs for children with JIA and conducted a multicenter Canada-wide survey of pediatric rheumatologists to determine their experience with accessing biologic therapies for their patients.
There were significant difficulties accessing biologic treatments other than etanercept and abatacept for children. There were large discrepancies in the access criteria and coverage of biologic agents across provinces, notably with age restrictions for younger children.
Canadian children with JIA may not receive optimal internationally recognized "standard" care because pediatric coverage for biologic drugs through provincial formularies is limited and inconsistent across the country. There is urgent need for public policy to improve access to biologic therapies for these children to ensure optimal short-term and longterm health outcomes.
To examine the frequency of 6 definitions for remission and 4 definitions for low disease activity (LDA) after starting a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice, and to study whether predictors for achieving remission after 6 months are similar for these definitions.
Remission and LDA were calculated according to the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28), the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), the Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data (RAPID3), and both the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Boolean remission definitions 3 and 6 months after 4992 DMARD prescriptions for patients enrolled in the NOR-DMARD, a 5-center Norwegian register. Prediction of remission after 6 months was also studied.
After 3 months, remission rates varied between definitions from 8.7% to 22.5% and for LDA from 35.5% to 42.7%, and increased slightly until 6 months of followup. DAS28 and RAPID3 gave the highest and ACR/EULAR, SDAI, and CDAI the lowest proportions for remission. Positive predictors for remission after 6 months were similar across the definitions and included lower age, male sex, short disease duration, high level of education, current nonsmoking, nonerosive disease, treatment with a biological DMARD, being DMARD-naive, good physical function, little fatigue, and LDA.
In daily clinical practice, the DAS28 and RAPID3 definitions identified remission about twice as often as the ACR/EULAR Boolean, SDAI, and CDAI. Predictors of remission were similar across remission definitions. These findings provide additional evidence to follow treatment recommendations and treat RA early with a DMARD.
To compare clinical characteristics and treatment between simultaneously investigated Sudanese and Swedish outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Outpatients with RA from Sudan (n = 281) and Sweden (n = 542) diagnosed according to the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria were recruited between December 2008 and September 2010 and compared concerning clinical presentation, treatment, and laboratory findings, including immunoglobulin M with rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF).
Sudanese patients had lower inclusion age (median 49 vs 68 yrs), disease duration (48 vs 107 mos), and disease onset age (43 vs 56 yrs) as compared with Swedish patients (p
Adalimumab (Humira) restores clinical response in patients with secondary loss of efficacy from infliximab (Remicade) or etanercept (Enbrel): results from the STURE registry at Karolinska University Hospital.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonist adalimumab (Humira) can be efficacious after secondary loss of efficacy (i.e. loss of clinical response in patients who had initially demonstrated clinical response) to infliximab (Remicade) or etanercept (Enbrel). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 36 patients from the Stockholm TNF-alpha follow-up registry (STURE) who received adalimumab after secondary loss of efficacy to infliximab (group A, n = 27) or etanercept (group B, n = 9), and 26 patients who were started on adalimumab as the first TNF-alpha antagonist (group C). RESULTS: In group A, the baseline disease activity score 28 (DAS28) at infliximab institution was 5.5+/-0.2. During infliximab treatment, the mean best DAS28 was 3.7+/-0.2 (p
Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, B139 Clinical Sciences Building, 8440 112 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. email@example.com
The aging population is impacting subspecialty areas outside of geriatrics. Rheumatic diseases increase with age. Therapy for these diseases can add to polypharmacy and negatively impact other comorbidities. This is a retrospective chart review of all patients attending a rheumatology subspeciality clinic over 1 year. Referrals were prescreened and excluded probable degenerative axial and peripheral disease and chronic pain syndromes. Data were collected on demographics, diagnoses, and medications. Two hundred ninety-five new patients were seen. Seventy-eight (26%) were seniors (age, >65 years) with a mean age of 73 years (65-90). Comparing the >65 to 65 age group included hypertension (31%), osteoporosis (27%), diabetes (15%), hypothyroidism (11%), and coronary artery disease (9%). Only one patient had documented dementia. There were no cases of uncontrolled hypertension identified, and all patients were receiving a mixture of anti-hypertensives. Eighty-one percent of osteoporosis patients were on antiresorptives, but only 40% of prednisone users were taking bisphosphonates. For RA, treatment was somewhat comparable between the groups, with all but two patients receiving disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Eleven percent were on biologics. Seniors comprise a significant number of referrals. Pharmacotherapy differs in seniors, with more use of prednisone and a probable contribution of polypharmacy. This study highlights the need for reciprocal knowledge by both geriatricians and rheumatologists to optimize the management of these complex patients.
In inflammatory arthritis, rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) are believed to be associated with more severe clinical outcomes. Our objective was to determine whether ACPA and RF remain stable in early inflammatory arthritis and whether their trajectories over time or baseline levels predicted clinical outcomes.
The study population consisted of patients enrolled in the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort Study with baseline and at least 12-month followup values of RF and ACPA. Primary outcomes were Disease Activity Score (DAS) remission and the presence of erosions at 12 and 24 months. Other objectives included swollen joint count, Health Assessment Questionnaire score, and DAS.
At baseline, 225/342 (66%) patients were ACPA-positive and 334/520 (64%) were RF-positive. At 24 months, 15/181 (8%) ACPA-positive patients became negative. A larger number of patients changed from ACPA-negative to positive: 13/123 (11%). For RF, fluctuations were more common: 67/240 (28%) reverted from positive to negative and 21/136 (18%) converted from negative to positive. RF and ACPA fluctuations did not predict disease outcomes. Patients who remained ACPA-positive throughout followup were more likely to have erosive disease (OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.68, 8.92).
RF and ACPA have the potential to revert and convert during the early course of disease. Fluctuations in RF and ACPA were not associated with clinical outcomes.
Biological therapy for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has led to improved disease control beyond that of conventional treatments. International recommendations encourage clinicians prescribing biological treatments to register patients in national registers to collect information on outcome and toxicity. Patients with AS (n = 229) from the Register of Biological Treatment in Finland (ROB-FIN) with severe disease of long duration were followed-up for up to 24 months. Due to an active disease, one or more concomitant disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were used by 86% at commencement of biological therapy. This add-on strategy with infliximab led to a rapid pain relief and improvement of patient's and physician's global assessments, C-reactive protein/erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and swollen and tender joint counts within 6 weeks. Concomitant use of NSAID and oral corticosteroid was reduced. Corresponding results were documented at 3 months with etanercept, which was more recently approved for the treatment of spondyloarthropathies. Seventy-nine percent of the patients were ASAS 20 responders. A subgroup of AS patients with only axial involvement (n = 46) responded correspondingly. The first biological drug was discontinued in only 7% due to lack of efficacy and in 6% due to adverse events. Anti-TNF agents, often used in combination with DMARDs, appeared to have persistent effectiveness and limited toxicity in a real-life clinical setting in a cohort of Finnish AS patients with severe disease and long disease duration.
Dietary intake of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) may be associated with superior response to antirheumatic treatments. In addition, dietary folate intake may be associated with worse response to methotrexate (MTX). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary vitamin D, omega-3 FA, folate and treatment results of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
This prospective study was based on data from the Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA) study, and included 727 patients with early RA from 10 hospitals in Sweden. Data on dietary vitamin D, omega-3 FA and folate intake based on food frequency questionnaires were linked with data on European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response after 3?months of DMARD treatment. Associations between vitamin D, omega-3 FA, folate and EULAR response were analysed with logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders.
The majority of patients (89.9%) were initially treated with MTX monotherapy and more than half (56.9%) with glucocorticoids. Vitamin D and omega-3 FA were associated with good EULAR response (OR 1.80 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.83) and OR 1.60 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.53), respectively). Folate was not significantly associated with EULAR response (OR 1.20 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.91)). Similar results were seen in a subgroup of patients who were initially treated with MTX monotherapy at baseline.
Higher intake of dietary vitamin D and omega-3 FA during the year preceding DMARD initiation may be associated with better treatment results in patients with early RA. Dietary folate intake was not associated with worse or better response to treatment, especially to MTX. Our results suggest that some nutrients may be associated with enhanced treatment results of DMARDs.
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1994 Dec 1;121(11):833-41 PMID 7978695
Cites: Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:101805 PMID 23710436
Cites: Ann Rheum Dis. 2011 Mar;70(3):508-11 PMID 21149499
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1999 May 13;340(19):1449-54 PMID 10320382
To estimate the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) both with and without exposure to biological therapy and to directly compare the risks between therapies.
Data from the Swedish National Population Registers, Tuberculosis Register and the Swedish Biologics Register were used to conduct a prospective population-based national cohort study (2002-2011). We estimated the rate of incident TB in the general population and in a cohort of biological-naïve and biological-exposed patients diagnosed with RA. Cox models were used to estimate HRs with particular attention to risks by calendar and follow-up time and individual biologics.
Compared to the general population, RA patients not exposed to biologicals had a fourfold increased risk of TB (HR 4.2; 95% CI 2.7 to 6.7), which did not decline over calendar time. In contrast, the risk of TB in the biological-exposed RA population decreased since 2002 compared with biological-naïve; from HR=7.9 (95% CI 3.3 to 18.9) in 2002-2006 to HR=2.4 (95% CI 0.9 to 6.1) in 2007-2011. The HRs for most recent exposure to adalimumab and infliximab compared with etanercept were 3.1 (95% CI 0.8 to 12.5) and 2.7 (95% CI 0.7 to 10.9), respectively, and the HR for etanercept compared with biological-naïve RA was 1.7 (95% CI 0.6 to 4.6).
In the past decade, the risk of TB has decreased among biological-exposed RA patients but remains higher than in biological-naïve RA patients. Most cases of TB in RA occur in biological-naïve RA patients, underscoring the elevated risk also in these patients.