Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for follicular lymphoma (FL). We explored our experience in ASCT for FL among all patients treated over a 15-year period from diagnosis through their entire treatment history including relapse post ASCT. All patients who underwent an unpurged ASCT for relapsed, advanced FL between June 1990 and December 2000 were analyzed. After salvage therapy they received melphalan/etoposide/total body irradiation, BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan (BEAM), or cyclophosphamide BCNU etoposide (CBV) as conditioning for the ASCT. One hundred thirty-eight patients with a median age of 48 years and a median follow-up of 7.6 years were analyzed. The majority were of the subtype grade 1, nontransformed (FL-NT), having had 1 prior chemotherapy. The progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of the FL-NT at 10 years were 46% and 57%, respectively, and at 5 years for the transformed (FL-T) were 25% and 56%, respectively, of which only the PFS was significantly different (P=.007). The median OS from diagnosis was 16 years for the FL-NT. ASCT positively altered the trend of shorter remissions with subsequent chemotherapies, and there was no difference in OS between those who had 1, 2, or >2 chemotherapies prior to ASCT. Salvage therapy for relapse post ASCT was effective (OS>1 year) in a third of patients. Unpurged ASCT is an effective tool in the treatment of relapsed, aggressive FL-NT and FL-T, is superior to retreatment with standard chemotherapy, is effective at various stages of treatment, is likely to have a beneficial influence on the natural history of this disease, and the disease is amenable to salvage therapy post-ASCT relapse.
We evaluated the predictive value of interim positon emission tomography (I-PET) after one course of chemoimmunotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). One hundred and twelve patients with DLBCL were enrolled. All patients had PET/computed tomography (CT) scans performed after one course of chemotherapy (PET-1). I-PET scans were categorized according to International Harmonization Project criteria (IHP), Deauville 5-point scale (D 5PS) with scores 1-3 considered negative (D 5PS > 3) and D 5PS with scores 1-4 considered negative (D 5PS = 5). Ratios of tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) to liver SUVmax were also analyzed. We found no difference in progression-free survival (PFS) between PET-negative and PET-positive patients according to IHP and D 5PS > 3. The 2-year PFS using D 5PS = 5 was 50.9% in the PET-positive group and 84.8% in the PET-negative group (p = 0.002). A tumor/liver SUVmax cut-off of 3.1 to distinguish D 5PS scores of 4 and 5 provided the best prognostic value. PET after one course of chemotherapy was not able to safely discriminate PET-positive and PET-negative patients in different prognostic groups.
Aclarubicin plus cytosine arabinoside versus daunorubicin plus cytosine arabinoside in previously untreated patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a Danish national phase III trial. The Danish Society of Hematology Study Group on AML, Denmark.
A regimen of aclarubicin (ACR) of 75 mg/m2 daily for 3 days plus a continuous intravenous infusion of cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) of 100 mg/m2 per day for 7 days was compared with daunorubicin (DNR) 45 mg/m2/day for 3 days plus ara-C for 7 days as first-line chemotherapy of de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a randomized, nationwide Danish study. A total of 180 patients aged between 17 and 65 years were entered onto the protocol. Patients who achieved complete remission (CR) were given five courses of intensive consolidation therapy consisting of two courses of high dose ara-C, two courses of amsacrine plus etoposide, and one course of DNR plus ara-C. Of 174 evaluable patients, 99 achieved CR. The rate of CR was significantly higher on ACR plus ara-C than on DNR plus ara-C [66% versus 50% (p = 0.043)] and decreased significantly with increasing age. The hematological toxicity was identical for the two regimens. A total of 83 patients entered consolidation therapy. At 4 years, 37% of patients with CR following ACR were still in remission compared with 33% following DNR (p = 0.48), and the total survival at 4 years was 29% versus 20% (p = 0.26). The duration of remission and total survival both decreased with increasing age. ACR plus ara-C seem at least as good or better than DNR plus ara-C as first-line chemotherapy of AML.
One hundred and eight adult patients with acute leukemia were diagnosed in the middle Norwegian health region during the 5-year period 1984-88, giving an incidence rate of 4.6/100,000 per year. Nine patients had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 93 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 6 patients acute leukemia without definite sub-classification. The median age of AML patients was 66 years. Thirty-five patients (median age 78 years) were found non-suitable for cytotoxic drugs, while 58 AML patients (median age 57 years) were given aplasia-inducing drug combinations according to one of three treatment programs depending on the time of diagnosis and age, in order to induce remission. Six patients were given oral drugs or low dose ara-C. All patients were followed until death or for an observation time of more than 5 years (median 7 years). The overall long term survival was found to be 12/108 for all acute leukemias, 8/93 for AML patients and 4/9 for ALL patients. For the AML patients given intravenous aplasia-inducing drugs the remission rate was 0.65, the median remission duration 12.2 months and the 5-year survival rate 0.19. For 31 AML patients, (median age 41 years), started on an intensive chemotherapy program, the 5-year survival rate was 0.32 and the relapse-free 5-year survival rate for the 22 patients entering complete remission was also 0.32.
The present study is a retrospective analysis of the outcome in 210 patients diagnosed and treated as having acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in Sweden during 1977-84. 131 patients were morphologically rediagnosed as ALL. For the ALL-patients, nine different remission induction regimens were used. Remission frequency was 69%, without statistical difference according to induction treatment. However, the reasons for remission failure differed among therapy groups. The number of responders was significantly higher among patients who received a remission induction therapy with an anthracycline and/or L-asparaginase. Maintenance therapy consisted in most cases of 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate with reinduction courses for 2-3 years. Median survival time was 13 months and median duration of first remission (MRD) 11 months. For a subgroup of patients (n = 29) treated with the most intense remission induction regimens, including at least 4 cytostatic drugs with both an anthracyclilne and L-asparaginase, the MRD is not yet reached, the shortest follow up time is 43 + months, and the probability of remaining in complete remission is 66%. We conclude that aggressive cytostatic therapy, with induction regimens including both an anthracycline and L-asparaginase, may cure a considerable number of adult ALL-patients.
In a ten-year retrospective singlecenter study of a nonselected patient population, we describe our experience with an unchanged chemotherapy regimen for 264 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 51 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the AML group, 85 patients could not receive specific antileukemic treatment because of uncontrollable bleeding, infection or organ failure, but 179 were fit for remission-induction therapy with cytarabine and daunorubicin, resulting in complete remission in 79 patients. During treatment, 54 patients died of resistant disease or complications. The median duration of survival of the patients in complete remission was 18-24 months (n = 79) compared with 1-2 months for patients in partial or no remission (n = 100). As maintenance chemotherapy, thioguanine, cytarabine and daunorubicin were given for one year. In the ALL group 50 of 51 patients received remission-induction therapy with vincristine, prednisone and Adriablastin, resulting in complete remission in 39 of the patients. The median duration of survival of the patients in complete remission was nine months (n = 39) compared with 2-3 months for patients not in remission (n = 12). Central nervous system prophylaxis with intraspinal methotrexate and cranial irradiation was given, followed by methotrexate and Purinetol for three years as maintenance chemotherapy. The remission rate for AML and adult ALL was 44% and 78%, respectively. The major Cause of death after first complete remission was leukemic relapse in boths groups, with a median survival time after relapse of 3-4 months for 48 AML and six months for 30 ALL patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Additional aberrations of the ETV6 and RUNX1 genes have no prognostic impact in 229 t(12;21)(p13;q22)-positive B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemias treated according to the NOPHO-ALL-2000 protocol.
BACKGROUND: Second- and third-generation chemotherapy protocols for the treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) have considerable, and age-related, toxic effects. In addition, they do not seem to prolong overall survival in comparison to standard CHOP chemotherapy. In this phase II study we investigated the feasibility and efficacy of the addition of etoposide to the conventional CHOP regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Toxicity and clinical efficacy were determined in 132 patients with previously untreated high-grade NHL. There were 51 patients in clinical stage I and II and 81 patients in stage III and IV, with a median age of 54 years (range 17-85). Patients received standard-dose CHOP plus etoposide 100 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1 and 200 mg/m2 p.o. on days 2-3. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 84%, with 70% complete and 14% partial responses. The predicted three- and five-year survivals for the group as a whole were 60% and 53%, respectively, and the corresponding disease-free survivals for patients achieving complete remissions were 65% and 56%, respectively. Outcome was not different from that of CHOP-treated patients in a recently completed Nordic study performed during the same time period. Myelosuppression (WHO grade 3-4), observed in 87% of patients and infectious complications (WHO grade 3-4) in 33%, dominated the toxicity profile of this regimen. Fifty-seven of 92 complete responders (62%) received 6-8 CHOP-E cycles with no reductions in planned dose intensity. LDH level higher than normal, extranodal sites = 2, stage III-IV at diagnosis were all indicators of a poor survival. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that CHOP-E treatment is effective in high-grade NHL. However, mainly due to severe myelosuppression frequent schedule modifications were required and the results are not obviously superior to those of conventional CHOP.
Results of continuous sunitinib, in combination with cetuximab and irinotecan every other week (SIC) for compassionate use in heavily pre-treated patients with mCRC are presented.
Patients with mCRC resistant to oxaliplatin, irinotecan, 5-FU and cetuximab received SIC at two Danish oncologic departments. The regimen consisted of sunitinib given as a continuous-dosing in combination with cetuximab and irinotecan every other week (CetIri). The first six patients started with a daily oral dose of sunitinib of 12.5 mg. Subsequent patients started at a daily dose of 25 mg with the possibility to escalate to 37.5 mg.
Twenty-nine patients received SIC. No patient had an objective response, but 13 patients had subjective relief and 42% had stable disease. The median time to progression was 3.2 months and median overall survival was 7.4 months. Fatigue and leukopenia were the most frequently reported severe adverse event (18% grade 3 and 18% grade 3/4, respectively).
Sunitinib continuous-dosing with 25 mg/day can safely be combined with CetIri administered every other week.
Capecitabine is an active agent in the treatment of breast cancer. It is not known whether integration of capecitabine into an adjuvant regimen that contains a taxane, an anthracycline, and cyclophosphamide improves outcome in early breast cancer.
Women with axillary node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive either three cycles of docetaxel and capecitabine (TX) followed by three cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and capecitabine (CEX; n = 753) or three cycles of docetaxel (T) followed by three cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil (CEF; n = 747). The primary end point was recurrence-free survival (RFS).
During a median follow-up time of 59 months, 214 RFS events occurred (local or distant recurrences or deaths; TX/CEX, n = 96; T/CEF, n = 118). RFS was not significantly different between the groups (hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.04; P = .087; 5-year RFS, 86.6% for TX/CEX v 84.1% for T/CEF). Fifty-six patients assigned to TX/CEX died during the follow-up compared with 75 of patients assigned to T/CEF (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.04; P = .080). In exploratory analyses, TX/CEX improved breast cancer-specific survival (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.95; P = .027) and RFS in women with triple-negative disease and in women who had more than three metastatic axillary lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis. We detected little severe late toxicity.
Integration of capecitabine into a regimen that contains docetaxel, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide did not improve RFS significantly compared with a similar regimen without capecitabine.
Comment In: J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jan 1;30(1):1-222105825