Randomized clinical trials have shown that use of 5a-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) lowers overall prostate cancer (PCa) risk compared to placebo, while the proportion of Gleason 8-10 tumors is elevated. It is unknown whether this affects PCa-specific survival. We studied disease-specific survival by 5-ARI usage in a cohort of 6,537 prostate cancer cases diagnosed in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial and linked to the national prescription database for information on medication use. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for prostate cancer-specific deaths. For comparison, survival among alpha-blocker users was also evaluated. During the median follow-up of 7.5 years after diagnosis a total of 2,478 men died; 617 due to prostate cancer and 1,861 due to other causes. The risk of prostate cancer death did not differ between 5-ARI users and nonusers (multivariable adjusted HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.72-1.24 and HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.69-1.41 for usage before and after the diagnosis, respectively). Alpha-blocker usage both before and after diagnosis was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer death (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.08-1.54 and HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.30-1.86, respectively). The risk increase vanished in long-term alpha-blocker usage. Use of 5-ARIs does not appear to affect prostate cancer mortality when used in management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Increased risk associated with alpha-blocker usage should prompt further exploration on the prognostic role of lower urinary tract symptoms.
In contrast to previous decades, the 1990s have witnessed an increase of new agents with significant activity in breast cancer, including chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and, more recently, biologic modifiers. All information appears to confirm that such a trend will persist and even accelerate in the coming decades. Unless clear strategies of development for new drugs are strictly followed, it will become difficult to adequately assess the many new agents with potentially important activity against breast cancer, and patient access may become a limiting key factor. The academic, global virtual concept is calling for the definition of a new relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and clinical researchers. The main aspect is related to the creation of partnerships with an academically controlled global strategy of development for promising new agents, in which the quality and independence of processes (adjuvant setting, for example) are critical. The means are based on the globalization of patient access (worldwide network) and the virtuality of the approach (modern means of communication as well as access to subgroups of patients). The Breast Cancer International Research Group is the first academic global virtual cooperative group in breast cancer and is making contributions in the development of new drugs, such as taxanes, new antiestrogens, and new cytokines.
In 62 patients with ovarial cancer of III-IV stage under the influence of enterosorption using polysorb the contents of primary and intermediate products of peroxidal oxidation of lipids have reduced and the antioxidant system indexes did not change.
The incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) is increasing, and several treatment options are available. The aim of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and treatment patterns in patients with AK treated by Danish dermatologists.
A multicenter, non-interventional, cross-sectional study was conducted. Three dermatology hospital departments and seven private dermatology clinics enrolled eligible AK patients consecutively during one week.
A total of 312 patients were included. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) was previously reported in 51.0% of patients and currently suspected in 9.4% of AK-affected anatomical regions. Lesions of AK were located primarily on the face (38.6%), scalp (12.8%), and hands (11.2%). Actinic keratosis commonly presented with multiple AK lesions (38.6%) and field cancerization (38.5%). The treatments used most frequently were cryotherapy (57.7%) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolevulinate (17.1%) and imiquimod (11.2%). The likelihood of receiving cryotherapy was higher for men (odds ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-2.47) and increased with age (2.2% per year, 0.4-4.0%). PDT represented the most frequently applied treatment for severe actinic damage and was more likely to be prescribed to women (OR 4.08, 95% CI 2.22-7.47) and young patients (OR 0.97 per year, 95% CI 0.95-0.99). The prevalence of severe actinic damage (17.3% versus 9.6%) and intake of immunosuppressive medication (29.0 versus 2.0) were higher among hospital patients compared with those treated in private practices (P
In 1966-72 in Saskatchewan there was a significant improvement in survival of patients up to 16 years old with acute leukemia treated intensively. The rate of complications was low. Attention to the emotional needs of the patients and parents and formation of parent mutual-support groups improved the acceptibility of intensive therapy.
BACKGROUND: Interest has recently been paid to adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, particularly because all reports so far published indicate that these patients have a better outcome when treated with pediatric rather than adult therapeutic protocols. There are different biological subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with distinct features and prognoses; the distribution of these subtypes is not well known among adolescents. We, therefore, studied acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and young adults aged 10 to 25 years in Finland. DESIGN AND METHODS: This population-based study included 225 consecutive patients aged 10-25 years diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during 1990-2004. One hundred and twenty-eight patients (10-16 years) were treated with pediatric Nordic (NOPHO) protocols, and 97 patients (17-25 years) with Finnish Leukemia Group National protocols. We characterized the biological subtypes, clinical features and outcome of these patients. RESULTS: For the whole cohort, the remission rate was 96%, 5-year event-free survival 62% and overall survival 72%.The 5-year event-free survival was 67% for the pediatric treatment group and 60% for the adult treatment group (p=n.s.). Patients with inferior outcome were those with a white blood cell count >or= 100 x 10(9)/L, the Philadelphia chromosome and MLL. Good prognostic features were TEL-AML1, hyperdiploidy, and pediatric intermediate risk stratification. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike all previous studies, we found that the outcome of adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with pediatric or adult therapeutic protocols was comparable. The success of the adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy emphasizes the benefit of central referral of patients to academic centers and adherence to research protocols.
Three hundred and sixty-seven children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been diagnosed in Sweden 1973-1978, 345 of whom were treated according to the national uniform regimens of the Swedish Child Leukemia Group (SCLG). The patients were classified into an SR (standard risk) and an IR (increased risk) group. Remission was obtained in 354 patients (96%). With 12-84 months observation time the total survival was 54% and the disease-free survival 44%. A more intensive cytostatic regimen in the induction period increased considerably the disease-free survival for the SR and to some extent also for the IR patients. Relapses were significantly more common in the IR group in spite of a more intensive cytostatic regimen. The most decisive IR criteria were B-LPK and age at diagnosis. Prognosis was significantly worse for boys in all groups. After 3 years in CCR treatment was discontinued in 95 out of 246 children (38%) of whom 19 later relapsed (20%).
Forty-one cases of primary fallopian tube carcinoma treated at our institution over the years 1946 to 1976 are described. The overall 5-year survival rate was 34.4%, although patients with early tumors had a 72.7% survival rate. The single most important factor affecting survival appeared to be the extent of disease at the time of diagnosis. Past and present treatment modalities are discussed, and proposals for management of this disease are outlined.
Evidence suggests that pre- and/or postoperative treatment benefits patients with stage II/III rectal cancer. This study aimed to quantify treatment patterns and adherence to treatment guidelines, and to identify barriers to having a consultation with an oncologist and barriers to receiving treatment in stage II/III rectal cancer, in a publicly funded medical care system.
Patients with surgically treated stage II/III rectal adenocarcinoma, diagnosed from 2002 to 2005 in Alberta, a Canadian province with a population of 3 million, were included. Demographic and treatment information from the Alberta Cancer Registry were linked to data from electronic medical records, hospital discharge data and the 2001 Canadian Census. The study outcomes were 'not having an oncologist consultation' and 'not receiving guideline-based treatment'. The relative risks of the two outcomes in association with patient characteristics were estimated using multivariable log-binomial regression.
Of a total of 910 surgically treated stage II/III rectal adenocarcinoma patients, 748 (82%) had a consultation with an oncologist and 414 (45.5%) received treatment. Pre-/post-surgical treatment modalities and timing varied; 96 (10.5%) received neoadjuvant treatment only, 389 (42.7%) received adjuvant treatment only, 119 (13.1%) received both, and 306 (33.6%) had surgery alone. Factors related to not having a consultation with an oncologist included older age, co-morbidities, cancer stage II and region of residence. Older age was the most significantly associated factor with not receiving treatment (relative risk=2.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.89, 2.64).
Disparities exist in the receipt of treatment in stage II/III rectal cancer. Factors such as age, region of residence and stage should not be barriers to consulting an oncologist to discuss or receive treatment. The reasons for these disparities need to be identified and addressed.