The impact of an ARB, with or without hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), on glycaemic factors and the risk for developing diabetes in hypertensive patients with the metabolic syndrome have not been fully assessed. This was a 52-week multicentre, prospective, phase-IV, open-label, cohort study of losartan or losartan/HCTZ in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome. All subjects were treated initially with losartan 50?mg?day(-1). Those not achieving target blood pressure (BP
The information needs of a group of patients taking antihypertensive medication were assessed with special emphasis on the influence of perceived symptoms of high blood pressure and adverse drug effects. All patients of a hypertension clinic currently on antihypertensive medication were included in the study. The response rate to the questionnaire was 85%. Of the 623 patients included, only 31% expressed satisfaction with the amount of information received on adverse effects of their antihypertensive drugs. Patients younger than 50 years explicitly expressed a need for information more often than those older than 64. There were no differences in the expressed information needs between men and women. The reported experience of symptoms related to high blood pressure and adverse drug effects was more common among younger patients than among the elderly. Of those who experienced both adverse drug effects and symptoms, 57% expressed a need for more information, whereas only 30% of those who had no such experiences expressed a need for more information on adverse drug effects. It was concluded that there is a substantial need for more information on adverse drug effects, especially among those who have experienced adverse drug effects or some symptoms of hypertension.
The aim of this study was to determine whether the incidence of type 2 diabetes differed among elderly users of four major antihypertensive drug classes.
This was a retrospective, observational cohort study of previously untreated elderly patients (aged > or = 66 years) identified as new users of an antihypertensive drug class between April 1995 and March 2000. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, the primary analysis compared diabetes incidence in users of ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs), with thiazide diuretics allowed as second-line therapy. In the secondary analysis, thiazide diuretics were added as a fourth study group.
In the multivariable-adjusted primary analysis (n = 76,176), neither ACE inhibitor use (hazard ratio 0.96 [95% CI 0.84-1.1]) nor beta-blocker use (0.86 [0.74-1.0]) was associated with a statistically significant difference in type 2 diabetes incidence compared with the CCB control group. In the secondary analysis (n = 100,653), compared with CCB users, type 2 diabetes incidence was not significantly different between users of ACE inhibitors (0.97 [0.83-1.1]), beta-blockers (0.84 [0.7-1.0]), or thiazide diuretics (1.0 [0.89-1.2]).
Type 2 diabetes incidence did not significantly differ among users of the major antihypertensive drug classes in this elderly, population-based administrative cohort. These results do not support the theory that different antihypertensive drug classes are relatively more or less likely to cause diabetes.
Antihypertensive drugs have been suggested to modulate symptoms of depression and anxiety. It is disputed whether this is due to the hypertension per se, its treatment, or both. The aim of this study was to investigate these associations in a large population sample. 55,472 participants in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2, 1995-1997), Norway, who completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression rating Scale, were divided into 3 groups according to their diastolic blood pressure and antihypertensive treatment status. A cut-off of =90 mmHg diastolic blood pressure was used to identify hypertensive status. Differences in anxiety and depression symptom levels in untreated and treated hypertensives (all treatments) versus the normotensive reference group were explained by differences in age and gender distribution in the three groups in this study. However, the receipt of two or more antihypertensive drugs was associated with depressive symptoms alone (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.03-1.90), but not with symptoms of anxiety (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.83-1.57) or mixed anxiety and depression (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.82-1.72) in the fully adjusted model, compared to untreated hypertension. Antihypertensive monotherapy (all agents) nor any single antihypertensive drug class were associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, or mixed anxiety and depression. There may be a positive association between multi antihypertensive drug use and symptoms of depression, whereas this was not found in persons with symptoms of anxiety or mixed anxiety and depression. This might reflect poor antihypertensive treatment adherence leading to polypharmacy, or other unfavorable health behaviors in people with symptoms of pure depression.
The role of atenolol in the management of patients with hypertension is currently under scrutiny. Our aim was to evaluate the real-world consequences of recent clinical trial findings.
We conducted a retrospective, cohort study using linked administrative data from the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Eligible subjects were first-ever users of antihypertensive medications between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2003 and were grouped into four cohorts: atenolol, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), thiazide diuretics, or calcium antagonists. Patients remained eligible during monotherapy only.
We identified 19 249 eligible individuals (mean age 60.6 years) who were followed for a mean of 2.3 years (SD 2.0). The rate of myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke, or death occurred in similar frequencies among all cohorts: atenolol (2.3%), ACEI (3.6%), thiazide diuretics (2.9%), and calcium antagonists (3.9%). After adjustment for potential confounders, atenolol therapy was not associated with higher event rates than the other first-line agents, with hazard ratios ranging between 1.03 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.72-1.46] and 1.24 (95% CI 0.91-1.68) for all cohorts compared with atenolol. Similar results were observed upon stratifying the sample into subjects above and below 60 years of age.
The low event rates for all cohorts suggest that atenolol has not been associated with a significant burden of cardiovascular morbidity or mortality in its traditional role for uncomplicated hypertension. Further study is needed to identify the specific types of patients that should avoid atenolol as an antihypertensive agent.
The BBB Study: the effect of intensified antihypertensive treatment on the level of blood pressure, side-effects, morbidity and mortality in "well-treated" hypertensive patients. Behandla Blodtryck Bättre.
The BBB study (Swedish for Behandla Blodtryck B?ttre or Treat Blood Pressure Better) was a multicenter trial designed to investigate three aspects of antihypertensive treatment: i) Is it possible to lower the diastolic blood pressure further in "well-treated" hypertensive patients through intensified therapy? ii) Can this aim be fulfilled without increasing the incidence or severity of side-effects? iii) If i) and ii) can be answered in the affirmative, will the further reduction in diastolic blood pressure be associated with a further reduction in hypertension-associated mortality and morbidity? Altogether 2127 hypertensive men and women with an average age of 59.8 years (46-71) were recruited at 142 primary health care centers in Sweden. Approximately 10,000 patient-years were accumulated. All patients had treated essential hypertension and all had diastolic blood pressures in the range 90-100 mmHg on three consecutive visits before entering the study. The patients were randomized to either intensified treatment aiming at a blood pressure 4 years. Adverse effects were studied in detail in 100 randomly selected patients from each group using a special questionnaire and a visual analogue scale. The adverse effect score fell significantly in group A but remained unchanged in group B. Regarding cardiovascular morbidity and mortality there were no significant differences between groups A and B, the total number of strokes and myocardial infarcts being 28 in group A and 29 in group B.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Two nationwide registers, the Finnish Cancer Registry and a register of persons entitled to free drugs for hypertension, were linked in a case-control study of the association of breast cancer and use of rauwolfia. Cases were all hypertensive patients in whom breast cancer was diagnosed in 1973. To test the association specifically with rauwolfia, controls were hypertensive women matched with the cases for age and geographic area and approximately matched for duration of treatment for hypertension. There were 109 case-control pairs. Use of any physician-prescribed drugs during the year prior to diagnosis of breast cancer was ascertained from original prescriptions. In the first set of analyses the patients were classified according to the drug used during most days of the year ("main antihypertensive agent"). In the second set a person qualified as a user of the respective drug regardless of the amount taken. The relative risks in the use of rauwolfia, methyldopa, another synthetic antihypertensive or a diuretic as main antihypertensive agent all ranged between 0.90 and 1.11. The results based on use of a drug in any amount were similar. Next, pairs in which duration of treatment for hypertension was different for cases and controls were excluded. The relative risk associated with use of rauwolfia as main antihypertensive agent then increased from 1.00 to 1.30 and the risk associated with use of any amount of rauwolfia from 1.16 to 2.14. Simultaneously, the relative risk in the use of digitalis was raised from 1.33 to 2.67 and of nitroglycerin from 1.00 to 1.71. Cases also used more types of antihypertensive agents simultaneously than controls. There was no association between rauwolfia-use and breast cancer in analyses limited to pairs in which neither case nor control used digitalis. Thus, there was not a consistent drug-specific association between rauwolfia-use and breast cancer in hypertensive patients. An underlying association of hypertension, heart disease or its treatment (digitalis) and breast cancer may have confounded some of the results of this and earlier studies. In conclusion, it is unlikely that use of rauwolfia increases the risk of breast cancer.
Merging data from existing electronic patient records, and electronic hospital discharge and cause of death registers, is a fast and relatively inexpensive method for comparing different treatments with regard to clinical outcome. This study compared the effects of antihypertensive treatment with candesartan or losartan on cardiovascular disease (CVD) using Swedish registers. Patients without previous CVD who were prescribed candesartan (n=7329) or losartan (n=6771) for hypertension during 1999-2007 at 72 Swedish primary care centers were followed for up to 9 years. Both medications were given according to current recommendations, and there was no difference observed in achieved blood pressures. The authors have previously shown that candesartan lowered the risk of all CVD (primary composite end point) more so than losartan (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.96). Candesartan also had a significantly better effect with regards to reducing the development of heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and peripheral arterial disease. In the present analysis, the authors found that candesartan, compared with losartan, reduced the risk of all CVD, irrespective of sex, age, previous antihypertensive treatment, baseline blood pressure, and presence of diabetes. These clinical findings may reflect differences between candesartan and losartan in their binding characteristics to the angiotensin type 1 receptor.
Before and after a four-year follow-up, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was determined for 67 municipal employees (initial age about 51 years). The VO2max (ml.kg-1) decreased 6% among the women and increased 8% among the men, the greatest and smallest change occurring for employees doing mental and physical work, respectively. The men's increase was associated with an increase in leisure-time physical activity. Work content was not associated with the level of VO2max for either gender. After the four years the women's absolute VO2max was about 66% of the men's. There were marked changes in VO2max at the individual level, the most marked decreases being associated with the use of medication in some cases. After the four years the women's VO2max of 63% was insufficient according to current recommendations. Therefore physically demanding jobs are not generally recommended for older women.
We studied 335,682 county residents, of whom 113,298 had been prescribed antihypertensive treatment (AHT), in the period 1989-2002 in North Jutland County, Denmark to examine the relation between different AHTs and the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). An internal comparison was performed among the different classes of AHT users with users of beta blockers as the reference, in order to address potential confounding and bias. The average follow-up was 10 years (range 0-13). Use of any AHT was associated with RCC (relative rate (RR)=1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-1.9) compared with nonusers in the general population. Specific classes of AHTs were nonsignificantly associated with RCC, but compared with users of beta blockers, the numbers observed were close to expectation. Analyses by duration of follow-up and number of prescriptions revealed no clear trends for any antihypertensive agent and after 5-years of follow-up, the RRs for all classes of AHT decreased. The elevated RRs for RCC among users of AHTs compared with the general population are unlikely to be causal, but rather reflect confounding due to failure to control for pre-existing hypertension, and protopathic bias, due to the presence of hypertension as an early sign of kidney disease.