Outbreaks of food-borne listeriosis have often involved strains of serotype 4b. Examination of multiple isolates from three different outbreaks revealed that ca. 11 to 29% of each epidemic population consisted of strains which were negative with the serotype-specific monoclonal antibody c74.22, lacked galactose from the teichoic acid of the cell wall, and were resistant to the serotype 4b-specific phage 2671.
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The comparative analysis of 133 S. typhi clinical strains isolated from patients and carriers in Dnepropetrovsk Province in 1978-1987 was carried out. As shown by this analysis, 10 Vi phage types were represented in the set of strains under study, phage types A and F1 being the most numerous ones. Phage type F1 occurred less frequently among the strains isolated from carriers. 31.1% of the strains were found to contain plasmids with different molecular weight ranging from 96 to 0.5 MD. The occurrence of plasmid-containing strains remained at the same level during the whole period under study. Low-molecular plasmids occurred more frequently in the strains isolated from carriers. The minimal suppressive concentrations of a number of antibiotics, such as penicillin, ampicillin, monomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, rifampicin and streptomycin, were determined. 7% of the strains were resistant to penicillin, 9% to monomycin, 15%--to tetracycline and 2.6% to chloramphenicol. The correlation between penicillin and monomycin resistance of the strains and the presence of the plasmid with a molecular weight of 60 MD in these strains was established. All strains were shown to be highly variable in the degree of their virulence: from 10(2) to 10(8). The strains isolated from patients possessed greater virulence.
BACKGROUND: Few data exist regarding the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infections in aboriginal, including the First Nations (Indian) or Inuit (Eskimo) populations of North America. We have previously found 95% of the adults in Wasagamack, a First Nations community in Northeastern Manitoba, Canada, are seropositive for H. pylori. We aimed to determine the age at acquisition of H. pylori among the children of this community, and if any association existed with stool occult blood or demographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled children resident in the Wasagamack First Nation in August 1999. A demographic questionnaire was administered. Stool was collected, frozen and batch analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for H. pylori antigen and for the presence of occult blood. Questionnaire data were analyzed and correlated with the presence or absence of H. pylori. RESULTS: 163 (47%) of the estimated 350 children aged 6 weeks to 12 years, resident in the community were enrolled. Stool was positive for H. pylori in 92 (56%). By the second year of life 67% were positive for H. pylori. The youngest to test positive was 6 weeks old. There was no correlation of a positive H. pylori status with gender, presence of pets, serum Hgb, or stool occult blood. Forty-three percent of H. pylori positive and 24% of H. pylori negative children were
Helicobacter pylori (HP) is now generally accepted as the main aetiological agent in chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer. Infection with HP is widespread, but the routes of transmission are still unclear. Several studies have shown increasing prevalence of antibodies against HP with age. In developing countries, age at peak incidence of seroconversion is probably considerably lower than in developed countries. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the age at maximum incidence of seroconversion to HP in a high-prevalence country (Ethiopia) and in a low-prevalence country (Sweden). Sera from 242 Ethiopian children, aged 2-14 years and from 295 Swedish children aged 1-15 years were analysed using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. In Ethiopia, a comparison was made of a local and a reference strain for preparation of the antigen, but there was little difference in outcome. A comparison between antigen prepared from the reference strain and the pooled antigen used in the Swedish study also showed little difference. The sharpest rise in seroprevalence was found in the age range 2-4 years. Among 4-year-olds, some 60% had already seroconverted, and among 12-year-olds almost 100% had done so. In Sweden, the sharpest rise appeared between the ages of 9 and 10 years. Above 10 years of age seroprevalence was around 20%. Infection with HP is acquired in early childhood in Ethiopia, but somewhat later, although still before the teens, in Sweden. To determine properly the risk factors for infection with HP, possible exposure must be assessed around the age of seroconversion, since seropositivity may remain for a long time but environmental factors may have changed since primary infection.
The investigation of the epidemic outbreak of tularemia morbidity among the population of Vyaz'ma, was carried out. In this investigation the disease was shown to be transmitted by the water route due to contamination of water in the local water mains as the result of serious violations of the rules of using water supply systems. In the process of the investigation of this outbreak a natural focus of tularemia, not registered heretofore, was discovered. The work emphasizes the inadmissibility of deviations from the generally accepted tactics of tularemia control, consisting of a complex of prophylactic measures, such as the vaccination of the population, deratization and disinfection, the examination of the foci of infection, state sanitary surveillance, especially with regard to the sources of water supply and the quality of water preparation, raising the level of professional skills of the personnel and sanitary education.
The serological grouping of 17 Pseudomonas lupini strains, which were isolated from the affected lupin tissues in 2002 in the Kyiv region, have been studied for the first time. The natural pathogen's population has been shown to be serologically heterogeneous. The investigated Pseudomonas lupini strains according to a set of specific antigenic epitopes belong to two serological groups I and III. The Pseudomonas lupini strains related to the serological group III are most frequent (88 %) than the strains belonging to the serological group I (12 %). The reduction of serogroup's quantity from four in 1963 to two in 2002 in pathogen's population, perhaps, has been determined by the environment modification and cultivation of new lupin varieties.
[Antigenic structure of B. pertussis and its relationships to the conditions of strain circulation. II. The serological polymorphism of B. pertussis strains isolated from sick children and experimentally].
The serotyping of 826 S. pneumoniae strains, isolated in conditionally diagnostic concentrations from the bronchial contents of patients with acute and chronic inflammatory pulmonary diseases during 1978-1984 in Leningrad, was made. The study revealed the prevalence of serotypes and groups 6, 23, 9, 3, 19, 15 and the undulant character of fluctuations in their annual occurrence. The specific proportion of the prevailing serotypes of S. pneumoniae among the cultures isolated from patients with acute pneumonia and acute bronchitis (6 and 19) was found to differ from that among S. pneumoniae strains isolated from patients with chronic bronchitis; in the latter patients serotypes 3 and 9 occurred more frequently (P less than 0.01).
The use of counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) as a diagnostic tool in infectious diseases is becoming more widespread. This study was undertaken to determine the possible use of CIE in the more rapid identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae in clinical isolates. Typing sera were obtained from the Statens Seruminstitut, Denmark. Sixty-seven out of 68 pneumococcal isolates that were optochin sensitive and bile soluble were typed by CIE. One isolate was nontypable even after mouse passage. An additional three isolates that were optochin resistant were considered to be pneumococci on the basis of the bile solubility test and their typability by CIE. Seventy-seven alpha-streptococci were tested for the presence of cross-reacting capsular antigens. Fifty-three alpha-streptococci showed no cross-reactions using the omniserum. Precipitin bands were obtained with the omniserum with 10 of the isolates, but these did not react with type-specific antisera. However, 14 isolates did react with the type-specific pneumococcal antisera. The sensitivity of the test was increased by sonicating whole-cell suspensions before electrophoresis was carried out. Mueller-Hinton broths were inoculated with presumptive pneumococcal colonies that formed the predominant or only colony type on primary blood agar plates. These cultures required a 4-h incubation period with an initial inoculum of 10(6) viable organisms/ml before a precipitin band could be detected. Precipitin bands were observed in 54 out of 56 (97%) broth cultures of pneumococci that had been incubated for 4 h at 37 C. These data suggest that CIE could be a useful tool in the identification of S. pneumoniae isolated from clinical specimens.