The optimal means of initiating warfarin therapy for acute venous thromboembolism in the outpatient setting remains controversial. We have previously demonstrated the efficacy of a 10 mg initiation nomogram in a randomized controlled trial; however, some clinicians remain reluctant to use this nomogram due to a fear of potential increased bleeding. To review the safety and efficacy of a 10 mg warfarin nomogram we conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients prospectively treated for venous thromboembolism according to a 10 mg nomogram in an outpatient thrombosis clinic. All patients received standard treatment with low molecular weight heparin for 5 to 7 days and warfarin for at least 3 months. Four-hundred and fourteen patients were included in the analysis, of whom 295 (71%) fully adhered to the nomogram. In the whole cohort, 8 patients (1.9%) experienced recurrent thrombosis, 4 (0.97%) suffered a major bleeding event, and 3 (0.72%) suffered a minor bleeding event. There were no deaths related to thrombosis or bleeding. Four patients (0.97%) died from unrelated causes. Twenty-two (5.3%) patients experienced an INR > or =5.0 in the first 8 days of therapy, and none of these patients experienced a bleeding event. Eighty-four percent of patients achieved a therapeutic INR by day 5. In outpatients, a 10 mg nomogram results in timely achievement of a therapeutic INR with an acceptable incidence of bleeding and recurrent thromboembolism.
To assess the effectiveness and clinical outcomes of catheter-directed thrombolysis in patients with atresia of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT).
From 2001 to 2009, 11 patients (median age, 32 y) with atresia of the IVC and acute iliofemoral DVT in 13 limbs were admitted for catheter-directed thrombolysis. Through a multiple-side hole catheter inserted in the popliteal vein, continuous pulse-spray infusion of tissue plasminogen activator and heparin was performed. Thrombolysis was terminated when all thrombus was resolved and venous outflow through the paravertebral collateral vessels was achieved. After thrombolysis, all patients received lifelong anticoagulation and compression stockings and were followed up at regular intervals.
Ultrasound or computed tomography revealed absence of the suprarenal segment of the IVC in two patients, and nine were diagnosed with absence of the infrarenal segment of the IVC. Median treatment time was 58 hours (range, 42-95 h). No deaths or serious complications occurred. Overall, complications were observed in four patients, one of whom required blood transfusion. Three patients were diagnosed with thrombophilia. Median follow-up was 37 months (range, 51 d to 96 mo). All patients had patent deep veins and one developed reflux in the popliteal fossa after 4 years. No thromboembolic recurrences were observed during follow-up.
Catheter-directed thrombolysis of patients with acute iliofemoral DVT and atresia of the IVC is a viable treatment option, as reasonable clinical outcomes can be obtained.
to compare data on pre- and in hospital treatment of non ST-elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in Russian ACS registers RECORD (recruitment from 11.2007 to 02.2008) and RECORD-2 (from 04/2009 to 04.2011).
Four of 7 hospitals participating in RECORD-2 were invasive (57.1% vs. 55.6% in RECORD). In RECORD-2 10-30 consecutive patients with NSTEACS were included monthly in each center; recruitment in RECORD was described elsewhere.
Mean age of patients was similar in two registries. Portion of women was significantly higher in RECORD-2 (42.9% vs. 26.0% in RECORD; 140) gave results close to those in all patients except mortality which was statistically similar but numerically higher in RECORD-2 (9.3 vs. 7.9% in RECORD; p=0.68).
Comparison of data of 2 limited NSTEACS registers conducted with interval of about 2 years showed only modest shift towards fulfillment of contemporary recommendations which was not associated with increase in rates of PCI and improvement of outcomes especially in high risk patients.
Despite recent progress, prognosis for the elderly (defined as aged =70 years) afflicted by traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unfavorable and surgical intervention remains controversial. Research during the past decade on the mortality rates or prognostic factors for survival in the elderly is limited.
We analyzed 97 patients aged =70 years who were treated surgically for closed TBI at our neurosurgical unit between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2012. In addition, we analyzed 22 patients aged =70 years who had sustained a closed TBI and on whom no neurosurgical intervention was performed. Outcome in both groups was measured as 30-, 90- and 180-day mortality.
Surgically treated patients: median age, 76 years' 30-day overall mortality rate, 36%. Higher mortality was seen with lower level of consciousness, high energy trauma, one pupil fixed and dilated, and more extensive intracranial pathology. Presence of warfarin, more advanced age, or degree of midline shift were not associated with worsened outcome. Patients not treated neurosurgically: median age. 81.5 years; 30-day overall mortality rate, 23%. Mortality for patients with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) 10-15 was 6%, GCS 6-9 67%, and GCS 3-5 100%.
Selected patients aged =70 years can benefit from surgical intervention for closed TBI. Level of consciousness, radiologic type of injury, mechanism of injury, and pupil abnormalities should be carefully evaluated. There also seems to exist a group of patients in whom surgical intervention offers little benefit, as mortality rate is low without surgical intervention.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the added predictive ability of the CHA(2)DS(2)VASc prediction rule for stroke and death in a nonanticoagulated population of patients with atrial fibrillation.
We included 1603 nonanticoagulated patients with incident atrial fibrillation from a Danish prospective cohort study of 57 053 middle-aged men and women. The Net Reclassification Improvement was calculated as a measure to estimate any overall improvement in reclassification with the CHA(2)DS(2)VASc sore as an alternative to the CHADS(2) score. After 1-year follow-up, crude incidence rates were 3.4 per 100 person-years for stroke and 13.6 for death. After a mean follow-up of 5.4 years (± 3.7 years), the crude incidence rates for stroke and death were 1.9 and 5.6, respectively. During the entire observation period, the c-statistics and negative predictive values were similar for both risk scores. The Net Reclassification Improvement analysis showed that 1 of 10 reclassified atrial fibrillation patients would have been upgraded correctly using the CHA(2)DS(2)VASc score.
Both the CHADS(2) as well as the CHA(2)DS(2)VASc risk score can exclude a large proportion of patients from having high risk of stroke or death. However, using the CHA(2)DS(2)VASc risk score, fewer patients will fulfill the criterion for low risk (and are truly low risk for thromboembolism). For every 10 extra patients transferred to the treatment group at 5 years, using the CHA(2)DS(2)VASc risk score, 1 patient would have had a stroke that might have been avoided with effective treatment.
Treatment with warfarin greatly reduces the risk of stroke related to atrial fibrillation, but will not be effective unless patients adhere to treatment. Lack of fixed dosing makes it difficult to objectively estimate adherence to treatment from prescription data.
To evaluate two methods that assess adherence to warfarin from prescription data.
Retrospective study of Swedish health care registers.
Age- and sex-specific dose requirements were determined from approx. 1 million blood tests and dosing instructions. By applying these dosages to 163,785 warfarin-treated patients with atrial fibrillation, we calculated the quantity of warfarin that was needed to keep these patients on effective treatment during a mean follow-up of 3.9 years and compared that with the dispensed quantities. The ratio of available drug/time at risk constitutes a measure of adherence on group level. In addition, time intervals between refills were used to assess discontinuation.
Both methods showed that 45% of the patients did not have enough warfarin to last 80% of the time at risk. Between 16 and 21% of the patients discontinued within the first year, followed by 8-9% annually during the following years. Patients with high bleeding risk and patients with low embolic risk showed lower endurance.
Adherence to treatment with warfarin can be estimated on group level from prescription data and may be useful for comparison of adherence with warfarin and new oral anticoagulants. When applied to a large warfarin-treated cohort with atrial fibrillation, we found that adherence is low and that measures aiming for improvements are needed .
Admission hyperglycemia has been associated with worse outcomes in ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia (glucose >8.0 mmol/l) in the hyperacute phase would be independently associated with increased mortality, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH), and poor functional status at 90 days in stroke patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA).
Using data from the prospective, multicenter Canadian Alteplase for Stroke Effectiveness Study (CASES), the association between admission glucose >8.0 mmol/l and mortality, SICH, and poor functional status at 90 days (modified Rankin Scale >1) was examined. Similar analyses examining glucose as a continuous measure were conducted.
Of 1,098 patients, 296 (27%) had admission hyperglycemia, including 18% of those without diabetes and 70% of those with diabetes. After multivariable logistic regression, admission hyperglycemia was found to be independently associated with increased risk of death (adjusted risk ratio 1.5 [95% CI 1.2-1.9]), SICH (1.69 [0.95-3.00]), and a decreased probability of a favorable outcome at 90 days (0.7 [0.5-0.9]). An incremental risk of death and SICH and unfavorable 90-day outcomes was observed with increasing admission glucose. This observation held true for patients with and without diabetes.
In this cohort of IV-tPA-treated stroke patients, admission hyperglycemia was independently associated with increased risk of death, SICH, and poor functional status at 90 days. Treatment trials continue to be urgently needed to determine whether this is a modifiable risk factor for poor outcome.
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Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) under the age of 65 and CHA2DS2-VASc risk score of 0 in men or 1 in women are considered to be at low risk for ischaemic stroke, and therefore without benefit of oral anticoagulation therapy. The objective of this study is to assess the incidence and predictors of ischaemic stroke among low-risk patients with AF identified from a National Patient Register.
A retrospective study of 25 252 low-risk AF patients (age 18-64) out of total 345 123?AF patients identified from the Swedish Nationwide Patient Register for the period 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012. During a median follow-up of 5.0 (interquartile range 2.9-6.8) years, ischaemic stroke occurred at an annual rate of 0.34 per 100 patient-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-0.38]. Significant predictors of stroke were age, hazard ratio (HR) 1.06 (CI 1.05-1.08) per incremental year, and previous alcohol-related hospitalization HR 2.01 (CI 1.45-2.79). Intracerebral bleeding events were rare and not statistically different HR 2.05 (CI 0.76-5.56) between patients with and without alcohol-related hospitalizations. Use of oral anticoagulants was associated with lower risk for ischaemic stroke, HR 0.78 (CI 0.63-0.97).
The presence of a previous hospitalization with an alcohol-related disease was associated with a small but significant increase in the risk of stroke among low-risk AF patients. More research about relation between alcohol use and ischaemic stroke in AF patients is warranted.
Essential thrombocythemia is a chronic myeloproliferative disease characterized by persistent thrombocytosis and an increased risk of thromboembolic complications. Most patients are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. In this article guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of this disorder are presented on behalf of the Norwegian Society of Hematology. On the basis of a literature search in international databases (Medline) and international medical journals, articles have been selected according to their clinical relevance. The risk of major thrombosis is higher in patients older than 60 years and highest among those with a previous occlusive event. In individual patients there is no clear relationship between platelet count and risk of thrombosis. Low-dose aspirin (75-100 mg/day) is recommended to all patients with platelet count
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Feb 10;120(4):512-310833946
Background Heparin dosage for anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is commonly calculated based on the patient's body weight. The protamine-heparin ratio used for heparin reversal varies widely among institutions (0.7-1.3?mg protamine/100 IU heparin). Excess protamine may impair coagulation. With an empirically developed algorithm, the HeProCalc program, heparin, and protamine doses are calculated during the procedure. The primary aim was to investigate whether HeProCalc-based dosage of heparin could reduce protamine use compared with traditional dosages. The secondary aim was to investigate whether HeProCalc-based dosage of protamine affected postoperative bleeding. Patients and Methods We consecutively randomized 40 patients into two groups. In the control group, traditional heparin and protamine doses, based on body weight alone, were given. In the treatment group, the HeProCalc program was used, which calculated the initial heparin bolus dose from weight, height, and baseline activated clotting time and the protamine dose at termination of CPB. Results We analyzed the results from 37 patients, after exclusion of three patients. Equal doses of heparin were given in both groups, whereas significantly lower mean doses of protamine were given in the treatment group versus control group (211?±?56 vs. 330?±?61?mg, p?