The 1996 Albert Lasker Medical Research Awards. Prevention of systemic infections, especially meningitis, caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b. Impact on public health and implications for other polysaccharide-based vaccines.
The development of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines has led to the virtual elimination of systemic infections caused by that pathogen, has provided insights into the pathogenesis of and immunity to other capsulated bacteria, and has contributed to the development of new vaccines. Meningitis, a common and serious infection of children, and other infections caused by Hib have been virtually eliminated in countries that have achieved widespread vaccination with Hib conjugates, including the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Iceland, Scandinavia, France, and Germany. Hib conjugates have also been shown to be highly effective in developing countries. The principles derived from the use of these vaccines, along with studies of other capsulated pathogens, should allow the rapid inclusion of new polysaccharide-based conjugates into routine vaccination schedules of infants, and should help to realize further reductions in serious systemic infectious diseases.
The validity of immunizations, made in due time in children aged up to 7 years in accordance with the approved immunization schedule, is analyzed in this work. The content of antibodies to diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis antigens in children immunized in accordance with the old and new schedules has been studied. This study has revealed that the injection of adsorbed DPT vaccine to children aged 3-4 months induces fully valid immune response to all antigens under study. The level of measles and parotitis antibodies after the injections of measles and parotitis vaccines, introduced separately and simultaneously, has been measured. The simultaneous administration of these preparations did not decrease the levels of immunity to parotitis and measles.
Acellular pertussis vaccines contain antigen components of B. pertussis, usually lymphocytosis promoting factor (LPF) which is also called pertussis-toxin (PT) or pertussigen, filamentous hemagglutinin (FH) and, eventually, agglutinogens 2 and 3. Acellular vaccines are being used in Japan since 1981. Several Phase II studies have been performed and showed a better tolerability than whole cell vaccines and antibody responses of at least equal magnitude. In some of these studies good protection rates were observed. The latter were not satisfactory in a Phase III study in Sweden. This study, however, might cause some criticism in as much as only 2 vaccine doses were given and a control group with whole cell vaccine was missing. Moreover, the significance of bacterial infections in vaccinated children is doubtful, similar observations have not been made in other trials nor in Japan since introduction of the vaccine in 1981. Preliminary results of our own study with a newly developed acellular vaccine which has been permitted by the Austrian Drug Commission have shown good tolerability.
Dental amalgam restorations are a significant source of mercury exposure in the human population, but their potential to cause systemic health effects is highly disputed. We examined effects on the immune system by giving genetically mercury-susceptible Brown Norway (BN) rats and mercury-resistant Lewis (LE) rats silver amalgam restorations in 4 molars of the upper jaw, causing a body burden similar to that described in human amalgam-bearers (from 250 to 375 mg amalgam/kg body weight). BN rats with amalgam restorations, compared with control rats given composite resinous restorations, developed a rapid activation of the immune system, with a maximum 12-fold increase of the plasma IgE concentration after 3 wks (p 0.05). After 12 wks, BN rats with amalgam restorations showed significantly increased (p spleen > cerebrum occipital lobe > cerebellum > liver > thymus, and the tissue silver concentration was significantly (p
At 51 men at the age from 20 till 30, sick with pyodermatitis, the clinical-immunological aspects and efficiency of-actoprotector, capable to support motor activity and human performance in the extreme environments. Bemitil has appeared more effective in comparison with conventional therapy: by general and combined application the parameters of immunity have been normalized statistically authentically, and at outside application-the places of damage were cleared faster, disappeared painfulness, hyperemia, edema, terms of staying in the hospital were reduced. The clinical recovery was in 86.3 +/- 4.8% of the patients, while effectiveness from conventional means was 62.1 +/- 6.8%.
During January 1969 an epidmic of influenza B was documented in Klawock, Alaska, a remote insular community 80 miles west of Ketchikan. One person died and 149 others developed an acute respiratory disease characterized by fever, cough, headache, and coryza. A fourfold or greater rise in hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody titer to influenza B developed in 26 persons, and influenza B virus was isolated from 5 patients. Reciprocal HI testing of the Alaska strain (B/Alaska/4-69) did not disclose a significant antigenic difference from the vaccine strain (B/Massachusetts/3-66). However, 36 of the 46 persons who had been vaccinated during the preceding 3 to 12 months developed clinical influenza, and the attack rate within this group did not differ significantly from the attack rate among the unvaccinated population.