Adalimumab (Humira) restores clinical response in patients with secondary loss of efficacy from infliximab (Remicade) or etanercept (Enbrel): results from the STURE registry at Karolinska University Hospital.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonist adalimumab (Humira) can be efficacious after secondary loss of efficacy (i.e. loss of clinical response in patients who had initially demonstrated clinical response) to infliximab (Remicade) or etanercept (Enbrel). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 36 patients from the Stockholm TNF-alpha follow-up registry (STURE) who received adalimumab after secondary loss of efficacy to infliximab (group A, n = 27) or etanercept (group B, n = 9), and 26 patients who were started on adalimumab as the first TNF-alpha antagonist (group C). RESULTS: In group A, the baseline disease activity score 28 (DAS28) at infliximab institution was 5.5+/-0.2. During infliximab treatment, the mean best DAS28 was 3.7+/-0.2 (p
The internalizing monoclonal antibody BR96 was conjugated to the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) using an acid-labile hydrazone bond to DOX and a thioether bond to the monoclonal antibody. The resulting conjugate, termed BR96-DOX, binds to a tumor-associated Lewis(y) antigen that is abundantly expressed on the surface of human carcinoma cells. BR96-DOX binds to RCA, a human colon carcinoma cell line, and BN7005, a transplantable colon carcinoma induced in a Brown Norway (BN) rat by 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine. BR96-DOX produces cures of established s.c. RCA human colon carcinomas in athymic mice and rats. BR96-DOX also cured both s.c. and intrahepatic BN7005 tumors in immunocompetent BN rats. Unconjugated DOX, given at its maximum tolerated dose, and matching doses of nonbinding IgG-DOX conjugate were not active against RCA or BN7005 carcinomas. An anticonjugate antibody response was produced in BN rats treated with BR96-DOX. However, this could be largely prevented by administering the immunosuppressive drug deoxyspergualin. These results confirm the concept of antibody-directed therapy in models in which the targeted antigen is expressed both in normal tissues and tumors. The findings in BN7005 further demonstrate efficacy of BR96-DOX therapy in a model in which the tumor is syngeneic and the host is immunocompetent.
AIM: Palivizumab (Synagis) was registered in Sweden in 1999 for prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in premature infants. The high costs and the limited knowledge of the efficacy of this substance have led to debate about how and when it should be used. National guidelines for the use of palivizumab in Sweden were constructed in the year 2000. The aim of this study was to evaluate the guidelines. METHODS: A nation-wide prospective study was conducted during the two RSV seasons of the years 2000-2002. The paediatric departments in Sweden reported the use of palivizumab, the indication for its use, and the number of infants born preterm before 36 wk of gestation and less than 2 y old who were admitted to hospital for RSV infection. RESULTS: During the two seasons, 218 (3.8%) children who were born before 36 wk of gestation, and 97 (5.4%) who were born before 33 wk, were hospitalized because of RSV infection. Five children were treated with mechanical ventilation. No death caused by RSV was reported. A total of 390 children were treated with palivizumab, and 16 (4.1%) of those who received prophylactic treatment were admitted to hospital with RSV infection. CONCLUSION: We consider the comparatively restrictive Swedish recommendations to be safe and recommend that palivizumab should also be used very restrictively in the future. In our opinion, palivizumab in preterm children could be recommended only for those with chronic lung disease younger than 1 y of age, and with active treatment for their disease.
To estimate the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) both with and without exposure to biological therapy and to directly compare the risks between therapies.
Data from the Swedish National Population Registers, Tuberculosis Register and the Swedish Biologics Register were used to conduct a prospective population-based national cohort study (2002-2011). We estimated the rate of incident TB in the general population and in a cohort of biological-naïve and biological-exposed patients diagnosed with RA. Cox models were used to estimate HRs with particular attention to risks by calendar and follow-up time and individual biologics.
Compared to the general population, RA patients not exposed to biologicals had a fourfold increased risk of TB (HR 4.2; 95% CI 2.7 to 6.7), which did not decline over calendar time. In contrast, the risk of TB in the biological-exposed RA population decreased since 2002 compared with biological-naïve; from HR=7.9 (95% CI 3.3 to 18.9) in 2002-2006 to HR=2.4 (95% CI 0.9 to 6.1) in 2007-2011. The HRs for most recent exposure to adalimumab and infliximab compared with etanercept were 3.1 (95% CI 0.8 to 12.5) and 2.7 (95% CI 0.7 to 10.9), respectively, and the HR for etanercept compared with biological-naïve RA was 1.7 (95% CI 0.6 to 4.6).
In the past decade, the risk of TB has decreased among biological-exposed RA patients but remains higher than in biological-naïve RA patients. Most cases of TB in RA occur in biological-naïve RA patients, underscoring the elevated risk also in these patients.
The N. Blokhin National Cancer Research Center is one of the few Russian scientific institutions in which hybridoma technology of monoclonal antibody (mAb) production has been successfully established. Using this technology, several dozens of mAbs to various antigens of human leukocytes have been elaborated. These mAbs are widely used for immune status evaluation and for differential diagnostics of leukemias. Two mAbs were used to develop therapeutic drugs. Imuteran is a pharmaceutical form of mAb ICO-25 against a mucin-like antigen of human milk fat globules and proposed for treatment of epithelial cell-originating cancers (breast, intestinal, ovarian, lung cancer, etc.). ThePhase II clinical study of this agent is now nearly completed, and preliminary results suggest Imuteran to be a promising anticancer agent with tumor-stabilizing activity, but patients should be carefully monitored for signs of allergic reactions. mAb ICO-90 against the CD3 antigen of human T lymphocytes was used to develop the therapeutic agent Atemonate proposed for treatment of acute transplant rejection. At present, the Phase II clinical study of this agent is over, and the results confirm the drug safety and efficacy for this indication. The drug is being registered at the Ministry of Healthcare and Social Development, and transfer to serial production is expected shortly.
A population-based study of the impact of palivizumab on confirmed Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) hospitalizations over a 7-year period within and between two similar health regions . Clinicians in Calgary implemented palivizumab prophylaxis for high-risk infants during the last four RSV seasons; clinicians in Edmonton did not. The two cities are part of a unified health care system and similar sociodemographics. Infants
Biopsy-verified response of severe lupus nephritis to treatment with rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) plus cyclophosphamide after biopsy-documented failure to respond to cyclophosphamide alone.
The monoclonal anti-B cell antibody rituximab (Rituxin, Mabthera) may be of benefit in antibody-driven diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis.
Two female patients with biopsy-confirmed severe and active SLE nephritis despite treatment with cyclophosphamide (CyX) were given four rituximab infusions plus two additional CyX infusions.
Both patients tolerated the treatment well and SLE activity improved. On repeat kidney biopsy after the combined treatment, Patient 1 showed a profound reduction of nephritis activity, and she was maintained on low-dose prednisolone only. A repeat biopsy after 1 year confirmed the sustained reduction of lupus nephritis activity. In Patient 2, rebiopsy after combined treatment also showed a significant reduction in disease activity.
These cases provide histopathological documentation of a significant treatment benefit from rituximab plus CyX in two patients refractory to CyX alone. This combination is being explored further as salvage therapy for such CyX-resistant patients.