Psoriasis substantially impairs the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients, and a comprehensive evaluation of treatment includes HRQOL measures.
To assess the impact of adalimumab on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.
In a Phase II, randomized, controlled trial, the efficacy and safety of two dosages of adalimumab (40 mg weekly or every other week) versus placebo were assessed for 12 weeks in the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Patients completed the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey, and EuroQOL-5D (EQ-5D) at baseline and 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients achieving a > or =75% reduction in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score (PASI 75). Investigators assessed PASI and Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) scores.
Adalimumab patients (either dosage) displayed significantly greater improvements versus placebo patients in DLQI, EQ-5D, and SF-36 Mental Component Summary scores, as well as in Bodily Pain, Vitality, Social Functioning, Role-Emotional, and Mental Health domains. The adalimumab 40-mg weekly group also reported significantly greater improvements in SF-36 Physical Component Summary scores versus the placebo group.
Both adalimumab dosages were efficacious in improving dermatology-specific and general PROs in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.
Results of continuous sunitinib, in combination with cetuximab and irinotecan every other week (SIC) for compassionate use in heavily pre-treated patients with mCRC are presented.
Patients with mCRC resistant to oxaliplatin, irinotecan, 5-FU and cetuximab received SIC at two Danish oncologic departments. The regimen consisted of sunitinib given as a continuous-dosing in combination with cetuximab and irinotecan every other week (CetIri). The first six patients started with a daily oral dose of sunitinib of 12.5 mg. Subsequent patients started at a daily dose of 25 mg with the possibility to escalate to 37.5 mg.
Twenty-nine patients received SIC. No patient had an objective response, but 13 patients had subjective relief and 42% had stable disease. The median time to progression was 3.2 months and median overall survival was 7.4 months. Fatigue and leukopenia were the most frequently reported severe adverse event (18% grade 3 and 18% grade 3/4, respectively).
Sunitinib continuous-dosing with 25 mg/day can safely be combined with CetIri administered every other week.
In this study, 250 women with osteoporosis were randomized to 12 months with subcutaneous denosumab 60 mg every 6 months or oral alendronate 70 mg once weekly, then crossed over to the other treatment. The primary endpoint, treatment adherence at 12 months, was 76.6% for alendronate and 87.3% for denosumab.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate treatment adherence with subcutaneous denosumab 60 mg every 6 months or oral alendronate 70 mg once weekly.
In this multicenter, randomized, open-label, 2-year, crossover study, 250 postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density received denosumab or alendronate for 12 months, then the other treatment for 12 months. The alendronate bottle had a medication event monitoring system cap to monitor administration dates. Definitions were as follows: compliance, receiving both denosumab doses 6 (± 1) months apart or 80-100% of alendronate doses; persistence, receiving both denosumab doses and completing the month 12 visit within the visit window or = 2 alendronate doses in the final month; adherence, achieving both compliance and persistence. This report includes data from the first 12 months.
The primary study endpoint, adherence in the first 12 months, was 76.6% (95/124) for alendronate and 87.3% (110/126) for denosumab. Risk ratios for denosumab compared with alendronate at 12 months were 0.58 (p = 0.043) for non-adherence, 0.48 (p = 0.014) for non-compliance, and 0.54 (p = 0.049) for non-persistence. Subject ratings for treatment necessity, preference, and satisfaction were significantly greater for denosumab and ratings for treatment bother were significantly greater for alendronate. Adverse events were reported by 64.1% of alendronate-treated subjects and 72.0% of denosumab-treated subjects (p = 0.403). The most common adverse events were arthralgia, back pain, pain in extremity, cough, and headache (each in
Epidemiologic studies continue to find an increased prevalence of rhinitis, asthma, and atopy in more westernized countries. Both allergic and nonallergic rhinitis are risk factors for development of asthma, particularly in adulthood. In patients who have both asthma and rhinitis, treatment of the latter decreases the likelihood of emergency department visits or hospitalization for asthma. The protective effect of intranasal cortico-steroids is much greater than that of antihistamines. This mirrors the effect on rhinitis symptoms, in which nasal corticosteroids are much more effective than antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, or the combination of both. In patients with severe asthma, sinus mucosal thickening on computed tomography (CT) correlates with the severity of lower airway disease indicated by sputum eosinophilia, exhaled nitrous oxide (NO), functional residual capacity, and diffusing capacity. Preseasonal specific immunotherapy (SIT) is less effective, but additive to treatment with omalizumab. It is also somewhat less effective in reducing nasal symptoms than nasal corticosteroids; however, it is superior to them for reducing lower airway inflammation. SIT in children with only allergic rhinitis reduces both the incidence of asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. High-dose sublingual immunotherapy appears to be safe and effective, but less effective than injection immunotherapy. It is not clear that there are cost savings with sublingual immunotherapy, as home administration savings may be offset by the much larger amount of allergen extracts required. New approaches to allergen immunotherapy, designed to increase efficacy and safety, include conjugation of allergens to immunostimulatory sequences and encapsulation in liposomes. Cross-reactivity between inhalants and foods demonstrated by skin prick tests is more predictive of clinically important sensitivity than is that demonstrated by RAST testing. The latter, because of cross-reacting profilins, is often clinically irrelevant.
To evaluate the role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in gut-derived sepsis, mice were given Pseudomomas aeruginosa strain D4 by bacterial suspension in their drinking water during which time ampicillin (200 mg/kg) was given to disrupt the normal indigenous bacterial flora. Cyclophosphamide was additionally administered to induce bacterial translocation of the P. aeruginosa that had colonized the gastrointestinal tract, and thereby to cause gut-derived sepsis. In this model, TNF-alpha was detected in serum from the next day after the second cyclophosphamide administration, increasing to level of 3 ng/ml in lethal conditions. Average serum TNF-alpha level was significantly higher in mice with bacteraemia than in those without bacteraemia. Treatment with 0.8 microg/kg of recombinant human TNF-alpha (rhTNF-alpha) did not affect the mortality, whereas administration of either 4 and 20 microg/kg of rhTNF-alpha significantly increased the mortality rate in comparison with saline-treated mice. Bacterial counts in liver and blood were significantly higher in 20 microg/kg of rhTNF-alpha treated mice than in saline-treated mice. Treatment with murine anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody significantly reduced the mortality from septic infection. We conclude that TNF-alpha may facilitate bacterial translocation and causes deterioration of gut-derived sepsis due to P. aeruginosa in mice.
Limited information is available on alemtuzumab in the nonclinical trial setting. We evaluated its efficacy and safety in 42 consecutive unselected patients who received alemtuzumab monotherapy in British Columbia between October 2002 and August 2006. Information on patient demographics, baseline clinical characteristics, dose and schedule, clinical response, survival, and toxicities associated with alemtuzumab was collected retrospectively. Thirty-nine of 42 patients had chronic lymphocytic leukemia, two had mycosis fungoides, and one had T-cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. In contrast to previous reports, 42% were treated by community practitioners and 83% received alemtuzumab subcutaneously. The median time from diagnosis to alemtuzumab was 58 months. One of 42 patients (2%) achieved a complete response, 20 (48%) achieved a partial response, and 13 (31%) had stable disease. The post-alemtuzumab median overall survival was 15.1 months. Response to alemtuzumab correlated with an increased progression-free survival (11 vs. 3.6 months, p = 0.001) compared to that seen in non-responders. Significant adverse events included grade 3/4 neutropenia (76%), thrombocytopenia (45%), infections (60%) and death (12%). With careful monitoring, alemtuzumab can be safely administered in a wide variety of clinical settings, including community practice, and is associated with a high level of activity in situations with few available alternative treatment options.
Th2 T cell immune-driven inflammation plays an important role in allergic asthma. We studied the effect of counterbalancing Th1 T cells in an asthma model in Brown Norway rats that favors Th2 responses. Rats received i.v. transfers of syngeneic allergen-specific Th1 or Th2 cells, 24 h before aerosol exposure to allergen, and were studied 18-24 h later. Adoptive transfer of OVA-specific Th2 cells, but not Th1 cells, and OVA, but not BSA exposure, induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to acetylcholine and eosinophilia in a cell number-dependent manner. Importantly, cotransfer of OVA-specific Th1 cells dose-dependently reversed BHR and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophilia, but not mucosal eosinophilia. OVA-specific Th1 cells transferred alone induced mucosal eosinophilia, but neither BHR nor BAL eosinophilia. Th1 suppression of BHR and BAL eosinophilia was allergen specific, since cotransfer of BSA-specific Th1 cells with the OVA-specific Th2 cells was not inhibitory when OVA aerosol alone was used, but was suppressive with OVA and BSA challenge. Furthermore, recipients of Th1 cells alone had increased gene expression for IFN-gamma in the lungs, while those receiving Th2 cells alone showed increased IL-4 mRNA. Importantly, induction of these Th2 cytokines was inhibited in recipients of combined Th1 and Th2 cells. Anti-IFN-gamma treatment attenuated the down-regulatory effect of Th1 cells. Allergen-specific Th1 cells down-regulate efferent Th2 cytokine-dependent BHR and BAL eosinophilia in an asthma model via mechanisms that depend on IFN-gamma. Therapy designed to control the efferent phase of established asthma by augmenting down-regulatory Th1 counterbalancing mechanisms should be effective.
Human genetics link Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis to excessive accumulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) in brain, but the symptoms do not correlate with senile plaque burden. Since soluble Abeta aggregates can cause synaptic dysfunctions and memory deficits, these species could contribute to neuronal dysfunction and dementia. Here we explored selective targeting of large soluble aggregates, Abeta protofibrils, as a new immunotherapeutic strategy. The highly protofibril-selective monoclonal antibody mAb158 inhibited in vitro fibril formation and protected cells from Abeta protofibril-induced toxicity. When the mAb158 antibody was administered for 4 months to plaque-bearing transgenic mice with both the Arctic and Swedish mutations (tg-ArcSwe), Abeta protofibril levels were lowered while measures of insoluble Abeta were unaffected. In contrast, when treatment began before the appearance of senile plaques, amyloid deposition was prevented and Abeta protofibril levels diminished. Therapeutic intervention with mAb158 was however not proven functionally beneficial, since place learning depended neither on treatment nor transgenicity. Our findings suggest that Abeta protofibrils can be selectively cleared with immunotherapy in an animal model that display highly insoluble Abeta deposits, similar to those of Alzheimer's disease brain.
It has been previously shown that autoreactive T cells appear during mercury-induced autoimmunity in Brown-Norway (BN) rats. In the present work, it is shown that: 1) T cells and T helper cells from HgCl2-injected BN rats are able to actively transfer autoimmunity in normal BN rats; the disease transferred is exacerbated when recipients are treated with the antisuppressor/cytotoxic T cell monoclonal antibody (OX8); 2) normal T cells preincubated with HgCl2 are also able to transfer the disease in OX8-treated but not in T cell-depleted rats; and 3) T cells from HgCl2-injected BN rats also transferred the disease in both normal and T cell depleted rats. It is concluded that: 1) autoreactive T cells, and presumably anti-Ia T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of mercury-induced autoimmunity; 2) these autoreactive T cells induce suppressor/cytotoxic T cells to proliferate in normal syngeneic recipients; the fact that this T cell subset did not proliferate in HgCl2-injected BN rats suggests that HgCl2 also affects T suppressor cells; and 3) mercury-induced autoimmunity could result from the additive effect of the emergence of autoreactive T cells and of a defect at the T suppressor level.
Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It is thought that bevacizumab inhibits the formation of new blood vessels. Two clinical trials show that the addition of bevacizumab to a regimen of either fluorouracil plus leucovorin (FL) or FL combined with irinotecan (IFL), significantly improves response rate and time to tumour progression and increases overall survival for patients with advanced colorectal cancer (ACC). Thromboembolic events are the most clinically significant adverse events, but hypertension, hemorrhage and gastrointestinal perforation are other potential safety concerns. More studies are needed to compare the combination of bevacizumab plus IFL to other chemotherapy regimens used in the treatment of ACC. The addition of bevacizumab to 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimens will significantly increase the costs of palliation for ACC.