Previously, this study group found that female childhood cancer survivors could be at risk of early cessation of fertility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate reproductive function in the same group of survivors 10 years after the initial study. Of the original cohort of 100, 71 were re-examined. Thirty-six survivors reported regular menstrual cycles. When they were compared with 210 controls, they differed significantly in antral follicle count (AFC) (median 15 versus 18, P=0.047) but not in anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) (median 13.0 versus 17.8 pmol/l). Survivors cured with minimal gonadotoxic treatment had significantly higher AMH and AFC compared with survivors cured with either potentially gonadotoxic treatment or treatment including alkylating chemotherapy and ovarian irradiation (20.0, 5.8 and
To explore the possible effect of metformin on maternal and fetal androgens and antim?llerian hormone (AMH) levels at birth and to study the predictors of maternal and fetal AMH levels.
Substudy of a randomized controlled trial (the PregMet study).
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and their newborns (n = 132).
Metformin, 2,000 mg/daily, or placebo from the first trimester until delivery.
Androgens and AMH levels in maternal venous serum and in umbilical vein and artery serum.
Except for the increased free testosterone index (FTI) in the umbilical artery in boys, metformin did not influence maternal or fetal androgens, or AMH levels. The maternal body mass index (BMI) was a negative and FTI a strong positive predictor of maternal AMH levels. Maternal androgens and AMH levels did not correlate to fetal gender. In girls, gestational age, birth weight, or maternal androgens did not correlate to the AMH levels. In boys, birth weight was negatively correlated to the AMH levels.
Except for FTI, which was higher in boys, metformin had no impact on maternal or fetal androgen levels or the level of AMH. Fetal AMH, as a surrogate marker for ovarian development, was unaffected by maternal androgens. Birth weight and gestational age had no impact on AMH levels in girls; in boys, AMH probably reflects the physiologic variations due to birth weight.
Can serum anti-M?llerian hormone (AMH) levels measured in female adolescents predict polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-associated features in adolescence and early adulthood?
AMH levels associated well with PCOS-associated features (such as testosterone levels and oligoamenorrhoea) in adolescence, but was not an ideal marker to predict PCOS-associated features in early adulthood.
Several studies have reported that there is a strong correlation between antral follicle count and serum AMH levels and that women with PCOS/PCO have significantly higher serum AMH levels than women with normal ovaries. Other studies have reported an association between AMH serum levels and hyperandrogenism in adolescence, but none has prospectively assessed AMH as a risk predictor for developing features of PCOS during adulthood.
A subset of 400 girls was selected from the prospective population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 4567 at age 16 and n = 4503 at age 26). The population has been followed from 1986 to the present.
At age 16, 400 girls (100 from each testosterone quartile: 50 with oligo- or amenorrhoea and 50 with a normal menstrual cycle) were selected at random from the cohort for AMH measurement. Metabolic parameters were also assessed at age 16 in all participants. Postal questionnaires enquired about oligo- or amenorrhoea, hirsutism, contraceptive use and reproductive health at ages 16 and 26.
There was a significant correlation between AMH and testosterone at age 16 (r = 0.36, P
Cites: Ann Clin Biochem. 2011 Jul;48(Pt 4):370-321628625
The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) blood concentrations in mother and fetus during pregnancy. Serum concentrations of AMH, gonadotrophins, oestradiol and progesterone were measured in pregnant women in the first trimester and AMH concentrations in second-trimester fetuses, and these were compared in relation to the sex of the fetus. A total of 153 women undergoing elective termination of a first-trimester pregnancy and seven second-trimester pregnant women undergoing cordocentesis were included. Concentrations of AMH in the serum of first-trimester pregnant women were similar to non-pregnant women and were unrelated to the very high concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin and the undetectable concentrations of FSH and LH. Serum concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone were unrelated to the concentrations of AMH and the sex of the fetus. Serum concentrations of AMH of four, second trimester, male fetuses ranged from 64 to 92 ng/ml, whereas it was undetectable in female fetuses. It appears that AMH serum concentrations in first-trimester pregnant women seem to be independent of gonadotrophin concentrations and fetal sex. The concentration of AMH in the circulation of male fetuses is higher than previously reported and is a highly sensitive marker for fetal sex.
To investigate the association between serum antim?llerian hormone (AMH) and other reproductive parameters in young women.
Population-based cohort of 256 women: 180 were users and 76 were nonusers of hormonal contraceptives.
Antral follicles, androgens, age at menarche, and duration and regularity of menstrual cycle.
AMH levels were lower among users of hormonal contraceptives compared to nonusers. Among nonusers, women with AMH levels in the upper tertile had 55% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22%-99%) higher levels of total T and 8% (95% CI = 2%-15%) longer menstrual cycles than women with AMH levels in the lower tertile. An increase of 1 ng/mL in AMH was associated with 45% (95% CI = 6%-97%) higher prevalence of irregular menstrual cycles. These associations were not seen among users of hormonal contraceptives. A strong relationship between AMH and follicle number was found in both users and nonusers.
AMH measurements were found to be applicable in evaluation of the reproductive function of young women. However, there may be differences in the way that serum AMH levels can be interpreted depending on whether the woman uses hormonal contraceptives or not.
To investigate whether genetic polymorphisms in the FSH pathway (FSHB-211 G?T and FSHR 2039 A?G) affect serum levels of FSH, antimÃ?Â¼llerian hormone (AMH), and age at pubertal onset. FSH secretion and FSH signal transduction are enhanced in carriers of FSHB GG and FSHR AA, respectively. Furthermore, the combined genotype FSHB GG+FSHR AA is the most favorable for male gonadal function, but the effect of this genotype has never been evaluated in peripubertal females. AMH is a marker of ovarian function and is negatively correlated with FSH in prepubertal girls.
Secondary analyses of a prospective cohort study.
We examined 78 healthy girls twice yearly for 6 years; the median age at baseline was 9.3 years.
Hormone levels were measured by immunoassays, and DNA was isolated from blood and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism of polymerase chain reaction-amplified regions.
Carriers of FSHB GG+FSHR AA had higher FSH before pubertal onset (median 2.2 vs. 1.5 IU/L) and lower AMH (13.8 vs. 19.4 pmol/L) compared with carriers of other genotypes. In crude analysis, girls with FSHB GG+FSHR AA entered puberty earlier, 9.7 vs. 10.6 years. However, the difference was no longer statistically significant after including interval-, right-, and left-censored data in a probit analysis.
The combined effect of FSHB GG+FSHR AA may potentiate the FSH pathway, which increases serum levels of FSH and reduces AMH. Common variations in genes regulating follicle growth may affect AMH levels independently of the number of resting primordial follicles.
Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors are present on pituitary gonadotrophs and on testicular Leydig and Sertoli cells. Thus, the GH/IGF-I system may modulate the pituitary-gonadal axis in males. This is a randomized cross-over study. Eight healthy male volunteers (mean age 35, range 29-46 years) were treated with GH for 3 weeks (1st week 0.01, 2nd week 0.02, 3rd week 0.03 mg/day/kg) or a GH receptor antagonist (Pegvisomant) (1st week 10, last 2 weeks 15 mg/day), separated by 8 weeks of washout. Before and after the two treatment periods, concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, inhibin B and Anti-M?llerian Hormone (AMH) were measured. During GH treatment, IGF-I increased [(median (IQR)] 166 (162-235) vs. 702 (572-875) ?g/L, p
In adult women, the circulating level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a novel marker of ovarian function, as it reflects the number of remaining ovarian follicles. Therefore, AMH has gained widespread attention in fertility clinics, and a low AMH is believed to predict impaired fertility and imminent menopause. However, the natural course of circulating AMH levels during female childhood and adolescence is not known.
Serum levels of AMH and FSH were measured in girls participating in The COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. Longitudinal part: 85 healthy girls and adolescents were examined, and blood samples were drawn every 6 months for an average of 3 years: median (range) number of samples per girl was 6 (2-10), age at baseline was 9.2 (5.9-12.9) years. Cross-sectional part: 224 prepubertal girls (age 8.3, 5.6-11.7 years) were examined and each girl had one blood sample drawn.
The individual mean AMH levels in girls followed longitudinally ranged from 5 to 54 pmol/l (median 18 pmol/l). The mean intra-individual coefficient of variation of AMH was 22% (range 0-54%). Overall, each girl maintained her AMH level throughout childhood and adolescence although minor, but significant, changes occurred during pubertal transition. In prepubertal girls, AMH was negatively correlated with FSH (r = -0.31, P
Do infertile patients below the age of 40 years have a lower ovarian reserve, estimated by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and total antral follicle count (AFC), than women of the same age with no history of infertility?
Serum AMH and AFC were not lower in infertile patients aged 20-39 years compared with a control group of the same age with no history of infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY?: The management of patients with a low ovarian reserve and a poor response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) remains a challenge in assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Both AMH levels and AFC reflect the ovarian reserve and are valuable predictors of the ovarian response to exogenous gonadotrophins. However, there is a large inter-individual variation in the age-related depletion of the ovarian reserve and a broad variability in the levels of AMH and AFC compatible with conception. Women with an early depletion of the ovarian reserve may experience infertility as a consequence of postponement of childbearing. Thus, low ovarian reserve is considered to be overrepresented among infertile patients.
A prospective cohort study including 382 women with a male partner referred to fertility treatment at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark during 2011-2013 compared with a control group of 350 non-users of hormonal contraception with no history of infertility recruited during 2008-2010.
Included patients and controls were aged 20-39 years. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome were excluded. On Cycle Days 2-5, AFC and ovarian volume were measured by transvaginal sonography, and serum levels of AMH, FSH and LH were assessed.
Infertile patients had similar AMH levels (11%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1;24%) and AFC (1%, 95% CI: -7;8%) compared with controls with no history of infertility in an age-adjusted linear regression analysis. The prevalence of very low AMH levels (