Antibacterial Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli from Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in the Faroe Islands, Associations with Antibacterial Sales, and Comparison with Iceland and Denmark.
Currently, data on Escherichia coli antibacterial susceptibilities in the Faroe Islands are lacking. The aim was to investigate the antibacterial susceptibilities of E. coli from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections in the Faroe Islands, correlate with antibacterial sales, and compare with Iceland and Denmark. From 2009 to 2010 and in 2012, 12 general practitioners from the Faroe Islands were recruited to provide urine samples from patients. Antibacterial susceptibilities were determined by disc diffusion testing according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods and criteria. Logistic regression (quasibinomial) of the antibacterial resistance proportions versus mean sales during the period of 2008-2011 was used to determine association. Nonsusceptibility to at least 1 of the 14 antibacterial drugs investigated was found in 54% of the E. coli isolates and was most common to ampicillin (46%), followed by sulfamethoxazole (39%), trimethoprim (27%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%), and
Antibiotic resistance is associated with prior receipt of antibiotics. An analysis of linked computerized databases for physician visits and antibiotic prescriptions was used to examine antibiotic prescribing for different respiratory infections in preschool children in Canada. In 1995, 64% of 61,165 children aged
Antibiotics are among the most commonly used classes of agents in community practice; yet, studies of antibiotic use in this setting are scarce. Data from developed countries suggest increasing use of newer broad-spectrum agents, which has implications for the development of antibiotic resistance as well as cost of therapy. In this study, we quantified changing patterns of antibiotic use in community practice in Manitoba, Canada, from 1995 to 1998.
A descriptive, population-based study of antibiotic use in Manitoba was facilitated by the Drug Programs Information Network (DPIN) of Manitoba Health; a data management system responsible for recording details of prescriptions dispensed for all Manitoba residents. Antibiotic use data, defined as numbers of prescriptions dispensed, were extracted from the DPIN from January 1, 1995, to March 31, 1998. Antibiotic use is reported as prescriptions per 1000 persons per year (Rx/1000/Yr) based on quarterly use.
Penicillins (48.3%), macrolides (16.0%), and sulfonamides (12.5%) accounted for 75% of total antibiotic use; total use decreased 19.1% between 1995 and 1998. Use of the four most commonly prescribed agents decreased over the study period (amoxicillin, -17.4%; erythromycin, -29.0%; trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, -18.7%; penicillins G and V, -19.2%). In contrast, use of newer and/or broad-spectrum agents increased (ciprofloxacin, 21.9%; cefuroxime, 30.7%; and azithromycin/clarithromycin, 29.5%). Use of second-line agents as a percentage of total antibiotic use increased from 14.4% to 19.3% between January 1995 and March 1998 (p
We aimed to rigorously evaluate the impact of prospective audit and feedback on broad-spectrum antimicrobial use among critical care patients.
Prospective, controlled interrupted time series.
Single tertiary care center with 3 intensive care units.
A formal review of all critical care patients on their third or tenth day of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was conducted, and suggestions for antimicrobial optimization were communicated to the critical care team.
The primary outcome was broad-spectrum antibiotic use (days of therapy per 1000 patient-days; secondary outcomes included overall antibiotic use, gram-negative bacterial susceptibility, nosocomial Clostridium difficile infections, length of stay, and mortality.
The mean monthly broad-spectrum antibiotic use decreased from 644 days of therapy per 1,000 patient-days in the preintervention period to 503 days of therapy per 1,000 patient-days in the postintervention period (P
Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to public health worldwide. As the healthcare sector's use of antibiotics is an important contributor to the development of resistance, it is crucial that physicians only prescribe antibiotics when needed and that they choose narrow-spectrum antibiotics, which act on fewer bacteria types, when possible. Inappropriate use of antibiotics is nonetheless widespread, not least for respiratory tract infections (RTI), a common reason for antibiotics prescriptions. We examine if pay-for-performance (P4P) presents a way to influence primary care physicians' choice of antibiotics. During 2006-2013, 8 Swedish healthcare authorities adopted P4P to make physicians select narrow-spectrum antibiotics more often in the treatment of children with RTI. Exploiting register data on all purchases of RTI antibiotics in a difference-in-differences analysis, we find that P4P significantly increased the share of narrow-spectrum antibiotics. There are no signs that physicians gamed the system by issuing more prescriptions overall.
Antibiotics are a medication class for which inappropriate prescribing is frequently described. We sought to assess the effectiveness of a mailed intervention combining confidential prescribing feedback with targeted educational bulletins in increasing the use of less expensive, first-line antibiotics by practising physicians.
The participants were 251 randomly selected primary care physicians from southern Ontario who consented to participate (135 in the feedback group and 116 in the control group). Prescribing data were obtained from the claims database of the Ontario Drug Benefit program, which covers all Ontarians over age 65 years for drugs selected from a minimally restrictive formulary. Confidentially prepared profiles of antibiotic prescriptions coupled with guidelines-based educational bulletins were mailed to the intervention group every 2 months for 6 months. The control group received no intervention until after completion of the study. The main outcome measures were change from baseline in physician's median antibiotic cost and proportion of episodes of care in which a prespecified first-line antibiotic was used first.
The median prescription cost of about $11 remained constant in the feedback group but rose in the control group (change of $0.05 v. $3.37, p
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This study is an economic evaluation of three treatment strategies for vesico-ureteric reflux in children: neo-implantation; subureteric injection; and antibacterial prophylaxis. Cost-analysis was used to compare the strategies, implying that the differences in benefits between them were not measured. Direct and indirect costs are included, taking the analytical viewpoint of the community. For the surgical strategies, data from four different hospitals in Sweden were used, and for the prophylactic strategy, data was gathered through a survey of 31 hospitals. The treatment strategies were ranked in the following order (bilateral reflux in parentheses): (i) subureteric injection SEK 25,000-28,000 (26,000-36,000); (ii) antibacterial prophylaxis SEK 16,000-36,000; and (iii) neo-implantation SEK 65,000-90,000 (72,000-95,000).
The main purpose of this paper was to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved by identifying Fusobacterium necrophorum in throat swabs followed by proper antibiotic treatment, to reduce the incidence of Lemierre's syndrome and peritonsillar abscesses (PTA) originating from a pharyngitis. The second purpose was to estimate the population size required to indicate that antibiotic treatment has an effect. Data from publications and our laboratory were collected. Monte Carlo simulation and one-way sensitivity analysis were used to analyse cost-effectiveness. The cost-effectiveness analysis shows that examining throat swabs from 15- to 24-year-olds for F. necrophorum followed by antibiotic treatment will probably be less costly than most other life-saving medical interventions, with a median cost of US$8,795 per QALY saved. To indicate a reduced incidence of Lemierre's syndrome and PTA in Denmark, the intervention probably has to be followed for up to 5 years. Identifying F. necrophorum in throat swabs from 15- to 24-year-olds followed by proper antibiotic treatment only requires a reduction of 20-25 % in the incidence of Lemierre's syndrome and PTA to be cost-effective. This study warrants further examination of the effect of antibiotic treatment on the outcome of F. necrophorum acute and recurrent pharyngitis, as well as the effect on Lemierre's syndrome and PTA.
This study compares the cost effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication and conventional treatment in duodenal ulcer patients treated by a general practitioner. Using a Markov chain approach, Swedish cost data and a study period of 5 years, we conclude that H. pylori eradication with omeprazole and appropriate antibiotics is a cost-effective alternative compared with both maintenance and episodic treatment. Of the patients entering the eradication strategy, most are cured and will have no relapse during a 5-year period. H. pylori eradication results in higher initial costs but, because of a very low risk of recurrence after successful eradication, the expected future costs are reduced. The investment pays off within 1 year when compared with maintenance treatment, and within 3 years when compared with episodic treatment.