Both asthma and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) involve inflammation. It remains unknown whether these diseases interact.
Databases analyzed included Danish National Registry of Patients, a population-based nationwide case-control study included all patients with ruptured AAA and age- and sex-matched AAA controls without rupture in Denmark from 1996 to 2012; Viborg vascular trial, subgroup study of participants from the population-based randomized Viborg vascular screening trial. Patients with asthma were categorized by hospital diagnosis, bronchodilator use, and the recorded use of other anti-asthma prescription medications. Logistic regression models were fitted to determine whether asthma associated with the risk of ruptured AAA in Danish National Registry of Patients and an independent risk of having an AAA at screening in the Viborg vascular trial. From the Danish National Registry of Patients study, asthma diagnosed
The work with the Nordic consensus report on asthma management started some years ago. The Nordic countries have common socioeconomic conditions. We acknowledge the international as well as other European guidelines providing valuable recommendations. Nevertheless, we felt the need to combine the common Nordic experiences in order to have a local statement of asthma and asthma care, based upon Nordic clinical science and tradition. The work has been rewarding and we acknowledge many valuable contributions from paediatricians, allergologists and lung physicians in all Nordic countries. The response has so far been positive and we feel that the present material reflects the main opinion of Nordic physicians taking care of asthma patients of all ages. However, the asthma and allergy research field is rapidly developing. Thus, this document should merely be regarded as a time-limited contribution to the continuing scientific discussion of this fascinating field.
The long-term treatment modalities of bronchial asthma were studied in children from a defined Finnish population from 1985 to 1993, with special reference to changes during the study period. The data on maintenance drugs in children with asthma from five years (1985, 1987, 1989, 1991 and 1993) were retrospectively retrieved from the computerized registers. The reliability of the data for the diagnosis and basic treatment of asthma was checked by one of the authors, who compared the data with the patient cards from the hospital. The number of children with doctor-diagnosed asthma increased continuously during the surveillance period. The proportion of children receiving preventive medication increased concomitantly; this increase was most pronounced between 1987 and 1989. The most common preventive drug was sodium cromoglycate; its use increased from 14% in 1985 to 58% in 1993. The use of inhaled steroids remained stable at 17-19% in all surveillance years. Our treatment policy is in accordance with the international consensus statement published in 1989; however, the change towards preventive medication occurred before its publication.
BACKGROUND: Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability in such studies. Data from a survey of a population sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 609; 288 males), aged 13-23 years, were analyzed to investigate whether AHR, PEF variability, and BR can be used interchangeably as markers of asthma in an epidemiological setting. METHODS: Case history, including self-reported and doctor-diagnosed asthma, smoking habits, and use of asthma medication, was obtained by interview and questionnaire. Lung function, airway responsiveness (positive test: PC20 FEV1 20%), BR (positive test: deltaFEV1 [(FEV1max - FEV1min)/FEV1max) 100] > 10%), blood eosinophil count, and skin prick test reactivity were measured by using standard techniques. RESULTS: The prevalence of a positive test was AHR 16.4%, PEFpos 13.3%, and BRpos 7.2%, respectively; 73.5% of the sample had three negative tests. Among the 74 participants with current self-reported asthma (12.2%), 34 subjects (46%) had more than one positive test. Using AHR as the only objective marker of asthma identified 93% of the participants with current asthma, whereas PEF and BR identified 45% and 10%, respectively. Confining the analysis to participants with only one positive test revealed that 61% of the subjects with isolated AHR had current asthma, whereas none of the subjects with isolated BRpos had asthma, and only one participant with isolated PEFpos had current asthma. Degree of histamine responsiveness was closer associated with other asthma-related factors, including self-reported asthma, use of asthma medication, and level of lung function, than PEF variability and bronchodilator responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Airway responsiveness to histamine, diurnal peak-flow variability, and bronchodilator reversibility cannot be used interchangeably as objective markers of asthma in epidemiologic studies. On the basis of the present findings, airway hyperresponsiveness to a nonspecific bronchoconstrictor is recommended as the objective marker of asthma-related airway lability.
PURPOSE: To compare refill adherence data based on two different methods of data capturing, that is, manually collected repeat prescriptions and a pharmacy record database. METHODS: The study comprised a comparison of adherence data from manually collected repeat prescriptions of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) drugs with fixed dosages dispensed in 2002 and the corresponding data from a pharmacy record database. Data were collected in the county of Jämtland in Sweden. Refill adherence was calculated for the different collection methods. RESULTS: Data from 285 manually collected repeat prescriptions for asthma/COPD drugs for 2002 showed that 35% of the prescribings had been satisfactory refilled, while 42% showed an undersupply and 23% an oversupply. The pharmacy record database had 490 prescribings for asthma/COPD drugs registered in 2002, 28% of these had a satisfactory refill adherence, while 43% showed an undersupply, and 29% an oversupply. Based on the database it could be shown that 11% of the individuals had used more than one repeat prescription of the same medicine during 2002. Based on the pharmacy record database for 1999-2002, it was shown that 29% of the prescribings had been satisfactory refilled whereas undersupply increased (53%) and oversupply decreased (18%) as compared to the 1-year data. CONCLUSIONS: Refill adherence determined from manually collected repeat prescriptions and from a pharmacy record database did not differ for a 1-year period. Four-year data might give a better overview of patients' refill adherence than 1-year data.
Many factors, including heredity, atopic status, and environment, have been implicated in the determination of asthma severity. Relatively little is known about the degree to which asthma duration influences asthma severity.
The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP), consisting of 1041 children (age 8. 9 +/- 2.1 years at enrollment) with mild-to-moderate asthma, offers an opportunity to examine the relationship between asthma duration and asthma severity.
By using the extensive CAMP baseline cross-sectional data on asthma duration, spirometry, bronchial responsiveness, symptomatology, and markers of atopy, univariate and multivariate regression models were used to evaluate whether asthma duration is associated with asthma severity.
Duration of asthma in the study cohort from time of diagnosis until randomization into CAMP ranged from 0.3 to 12.1 years (mean, 5.0; SD, 2.7; median, 4.8). Asthma duration is associated in univariate analyses both with lower levels of several lung functions (P
Telephone surveys describing suboptimal asthma control may be biased by low response rates. In order to obtain an unbiased assessment of asthma control and assess its impact in primary care, primary care physicians used a 1-page control questionnaire in 50 consecutive asthma patients. Of the 10,428 patients assessed by 354 physicians, 59% were uncontrolled, 19% well-controlled and 23% totally controlled. Physicians overestimated control, regarding only 42% of patients as uncontrolled. Physicians were more likely to report plans to alter the regimens of uncontrolled patients than controlled patients (1.29 versus 0.20 medication changes per patient) doing so in a fashion consistent with guideline recommendations. Of the uncontrolled patients, 59% required one or more urgent care or specialist visits versus 26 and 15% of well-controlled or totally controlled patients, respectively. Patients were more likely to report short-term symptom control when they had not required urgent or specialist care (odds ratio 5.68; 95% confidence interval 4.91-6.58). The majority of asthma patients treated in general practice are uncontrolled. Lack of control can be recognised by physicians who are likely to consider appropriate changes to therapy. A lack of short-term symptom control of asthma is associated with excess healthcare utilisation.
Comment In: Eur Respir J. 2008 Feb;31(2):229-3118238943