Anthropometric measurement is a noninvasive and cost-efficient method for nutritional assessment. The study aims to present age- and gender-specific anthropometric reference data for Swedish elderly in relation to common medical conditions, and also formulate prediction equations for such anthropometric measurements.
A cross-sectional study among random heterogeneous sample of 3360 subjects, aged 60-99 years, from a population study 'Good Aging in Scania. Means (±s.d.) and percentiles for height, weight, waist-, hip-, arm-, calf circumferences, triceps- (TST) and subscapular skinfold thickness (SST), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were presented. The values were estimated based on the prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac failure (CHF), stroke, cognitive impairment, dementia and dependence in daily living activities (ADL). Linear regression analysis was used to formulate the prediction equations.
Mean BMI was 27.5±5.8?kg/m(2) (men) and 27.2±8.1?kg/m(2) (women). WHR was higher among men (Men: 0.98±0.3, women: 0.87±0.2), except at age 85+ (women: 0.91±0.6). TST was 6.7±0.4?mm higher among women. Men with MI had BMI: 28.6±4.8?kg/m(2) and SST: 21±9.2?mm, whereas subjects with dementia had lower weight (by 9.5±2.9?kg) compared with the non-demented. ADL-dependent women had BMI= 29.0±3.9?kg/m(2), TST=19.2±1.3?mm.
New normative data on gender- and age-specific anthropometrics on the general elderly population are presented. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with subcutaneous and central adiposity opposed to fat loss with dementia. ADL dependence indicates inadequate physical activity. The prediction models could be used as possible indicators monitoring physical activity and adiposity among the general elderly population hence potential health indicators in health promotion.
BACKGROUND: Body Mass Index (BMI) is often used as a surrogate estimate of body fat in epidemiological studies. This study explores the association between BMI, body fat and body fat distribution assessed by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in younger children. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 246 children (138 boys and 108 girls) aged 8-11 years. DXA was used to quantify abdominal fat mass (AFM), total body fat (TBF) and also total body fat as percentage of total body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. RESULTS: We found close correlations between BMI vs. TBF, BF% and AFM (r = 0.94, r = 0.92 and r = 0.93) for boys and (r = 0.95, r = 0.92 and r = 0.95) for girls, respectively (P
Reference point indentation is a novel method to assess bone material strength index (BMSi) in vivo. We found that BMSi at the mid-tibia was weakly associated with spine and hip areal bone mineral density but not with prevalent fracture in a population-based cohort of 211 older women.
Reference point indentation is a novel method to assess BMSi in vivo. Lower BMSi has been observed in patients with prior fracture than in controls, but no association between BMSi and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) has been found. Population-based association studies and prospective studies with BMSi and fractures are lacking. We hypothesized that BMSi would be associated with prevalent fractures in older Swedish women. The aim was to investigate the associations between BMSi, aBMD, and prevalent fracture in older women.
Two hundred eleven women, mean age 78.3?±?1.1 years, were included in this cross-sectional, population-based study. BMSi was assessed using the OsteoProbe device at the mid-tibia. Areal BMD of the hip, spine, and non-dominant radius was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fracture history was retrieved using questionnaires, and vertebral fractures were identified using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by DXA.
One hundred ninety-eight previous fractures in 109 subjects were reported. A total of 106 women had a vertebral fracture, of which 58 women had moderate or severe fractures. An inverse correlation between BMSi and weight (r?=?-0.14, p?=?0.04) was seen, and BMSi differed according to operator (ANOVA p?
OBJECTIVE: To explore the utility of cluster analysis in defining complex dietary exposures, separately with two types of variables. DESIGN:: A modified diet history method, combining a 7-day menu book and a 168-item questionnaire, assessed dietary habits. A standardized questionnaire collected information on sociodemographics, lifestyle and health history. Anthropometric information was obtained through direct measurements. The dietary information was collapsed into 43 generic food groups, and converted into variables indicating the per cent contribution of specific food groups to total energy intake. Food patterns were identified by the QUICK CLUSTER procedure in SPSS, in two separate analytical steps using unstandardized and standardized (Z-scores) clustering variables. SETTING:: The Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) Study, a prospective study in the third largest city of Sweden, with baseline examinations from March 1991 to October 1996. SUBJECTS: A random sample of 2206 men and 3151 women from the MDC cohort (n = 28 098). RESULTS: Both variable types produced conceptually well separated clusters, confirmed with discriminant analysis. 'Healthy' and 'less healthy' food patterns were also identified with both types of variables. However, nutrient intake differences across clusters were greater, and the distribution of the number of individuals more even, with the unstandardized variables. Logistic regression indicated higher risks of past food habit change, underreporting of energy and higher body mass index (BMI) for individuals falling into 'healthy' food pattern clusters. CONCLUSIONS: The utility in discriminating dietary exposures appears greater for unstandardized food group variables. Future studies on diet and cancer need to recognize the confounding factors associated with 'healthy' food patterns.
The degree of misclassification of obesity and undernutrition among elders owing to inaccurate height measurements is investigated using height predicted by knee height (KH) and demispan equations.
Cross-sectional investigation was done among a random heterogeneous sample from five municipalities in Southern Sweden from a general population study 'Good Aging in Skåne' (GÅS). The sample comprised two groups: group 1 (KH) including 2839 GÅS baseline participants aged 60-93 years with a valid KH measurement and group 2 (demispan) including 2871 GÅS follow-up examination participants (1573 baseline; 1298 new), aged 60-99 years, with a valid demispan measurement. Participation rate was 80%. Height, weight, KH and demispan were measured. KH and demispan equations were formulated using linear regression analysis among participants aged 60-64 years as reference. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated in kg/m(2).
Undernutrition prevalences in men and women were 3.9 and 8.6% by KH, compared with 2.4 and 5.4% by standard BMI, and more pronounced for all women aged 85+ years (21% vs 11.3%). The corresponding value in women aged 85+ years by demispan was 16.5% vs 10% by standard BMI. Obesity prevalences in men and women were 17.5 and 14.6% by KH, compared with 19.0 and 20.03% by standard BMI. Values among women aged 85+ years were 3.7% vs 10.4% by KH and 6.5% vs 12.7% by demispan compared with the standard.
There is an age-related misclassification of undernutrition and obesity attributed to inaccurate height estimation among the elderly. This could affect the management of patients at true risk. We therefore propose using KH- and demispan-based formulae to address this issue.
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Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures were evaluated in 1,396 men and women for a period of 20 years. Serum total cholesterol was found to be an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term risk factors for osteoporotic fracture.
A population random sample of men and women aged 25-64 years (the Gothenburg WHO MONICA project, N?=?1,396, 53% women) was studied prospectively. The 1985 baseline examination recorded physical activity at work and during leisure time, psychological stress, smoking habits, coffee consumption, BMI, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fibrinogen. Osteoporotic fractures over a period of 20 years were retrieved from the Gothenburg hospital registers. Poisson regression was used to analyze the predictive power for osteoporotic fracture of each risk factor.
A total number of 258 osteoporotic fractures occurred in 143 participants (10.2%). As expected, we found that previous fracture, smoking, coffee consumption, and lower BMI each increase the risk for osteoporotic fracture independently of age and sex. More unexpectedly, we found that the gradient of risk of serum total cholesterol to predict osteoporotic fracture significantly increases over time (p?=?0.0377).
Serum total cholesterol is an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.
Available standard intrauterine growth curves based on birthweights underestimate foetal growth in preterm period. New growth curves are presented based on data from four Scandinavian centres for 759 ultrasonically estimated foetal weights in 86 uncomplicated pregnancies. Mean weight of boys exceeded that of girls by 2-3%. A uniform SD value of 12% of the mean weight was adopted for the standard curves as the true SD varied non-systematically between 9.1 and 12.4%. Applied to an unselected population of 8663 singleton births, before 210 days of gestation, 32% of birthweights were classified as small-for-gestational age (SGA; i.e. below mean - 2 SD); the corresponding figures were 11.1% for gestational ages between 210 and 258 days, and 2.6% for ages of 259 days or longer. The new growth curves reveal better the true distribution of SGA foetuses and neonates, and are suggested for use in perinatological practice.
To study the association between anthropometric measures: body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip-to-height ratio (WHHR), and A Body Shape Index (ABSI); to see if individuals in the lowest 5 percentiles for these measures have an increased risk of mortality.
A population-based prospective cohort study (10,304 men and 16,549 women), the Malmö Diet and Cancer study (MDC), aged 45-73 years.
During a mean follow-up of 14 ± 3 years, 2,224 men and 1,983 women died. There was a significant increased mortality risk after adjustments for potential confounders in the group with the 5% lowest BMI (referent 25%-75%); hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals were 1.33 (1.10-1.61) for women and 1.27 (1.07-1.52) for men. A similar significant increased mortality risk was seen with the 5% lowest percent body fat, HR 1.31 (1.07-1.60) for women and 1.25 (1.04-1.50) for men. Women with an ABSI in the lowest 5 percentiles had a lower mortality risk HR 0.64 (0.48-0.85).
These results imply that BMI or percent body fat could be used to identify lean individuals at increased mortality risk.
Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, P.O Box 454, 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org.
In women, a large hip circumference (HC) related to lower hip fracture risk, independent of age and regardless if HC was measured long before or closer to the fracture. In older women, body mass index (BMI) explained the protection.
In postmenopausal women, HC has been suggested to inversely associate with hip fracture while this has not been investigated in middle-aged women. We examined the association between HC, measured at two different time points, and hip fracture in a Swedish female population-based sample monitored for incident hip fractures over many years.
Baseline HC, measured in 1968 or 1974 (n?=?1451, mean age 47.6 years), or the HC measures that were the most proximal before event or censoring (n?=?1325, mean age 71.7 years), were used to assess the effects of HC on hip fracture risk in women participating in the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg. HC was parameterized as quintiles with the lowest quintile (Q1) as reference. Incident hip fractures over 45 years of follow-up (n?=?257) were identified through hospital registers.
Higher quintiles of HC at both baseline and proximal to event were inversely associated with hip fracture risk in age-adjusted models, but only baseline HC predicted hip fractures independently of BMI and other covariates (HR (95% CI) Q2, 0.85 (0.56-1.27); Q3, 0.59 (0.36-0.96); Q4, 0.57 (0.34-0.96); Q5, 0.58 (0.31-1.10)).
A large HC is protective against hip fracture in midlife and in advanced age, but the association between proximal HC and hip fracture was explained by concurrent BMI suggesting that padding was not the main mechanism for the association. The independent protection seen in middle-aged women points to other mechanisms influencing bone strength.
The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and type of minor physical anomalies in schizophrenic patients and their normal siblings.
Sixty adult patients with schizophrenia, 21 siblings of these patients, and 75 normal comparison subjects were assessed through use of an extended scale consisting of the Waldrop scale and 23 other minor physical anomalies.
Patients had significantly more minor physical anomalies than comparison subjects in all body areas tested and also more minor physical anomalies in total than their siblings. Hand, eye, and mouth minor physical anomalies best discriminated patients from comparison subjects. Siblings had significantly more minor physical anomalies than normal comparison subjects. Sixty percent of the patients and 38% of the siblings, but only 5% of the comparison subjects, had a higher rate of minor physical anomalies (i.e., six or more). With the exception of ear minor physical anomalies, no association was found between minor physical anomalies in the patient and sibling in the same family.
Higher levels of minor physical anomalies (especially in the eye, mouth, and hand/foot regions) characterize both schizophrenic patients and their normal siblings, but there is little similarity in these anomalies between patients and siblings in the same family. Thus, one or more genetic or shared environmental factors may increase the risk for development of both minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia in these families at large. Minor physical anomalies associated with schizophrenia are frequently found in, but are clearly not limited to, the head or facial region. The Waldrop scale identifies minor physical anomalies strongly associated with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, assessment of the new items clearly indicates that many additional minor physical anomalies are found in schizophrenic patients.
Comment In: Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Mar;157(3):48610698853