Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures were evaluated in 1,396 men and women for a period of 20 years. Serum total cholesterol was found to be an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term risk factors for osteoporotic fracture.
A population random sample of men and women aged 25-64 years (the Gothenburg WHO MONICA project, N?=?1,396, 53% women) was studied prospectively. The 1985 baseline examination recorded physical activity at work and during leisure time, psychological stress, smoking habits, coffee consumption, BMI, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fibrinogen. Osteoporotic fractures over a period of 20 years were retrieved from the Gothenburg hospital registers. Poisson regression was used to analyze the predictive power for osteoporotic fracture of each risk factor.
A total number of 258 osteoporotic fractures occurred in 143 participants (10.2%). As expected, we found that previous fracture, smoking, coffee consumption, and lower BMI each increase the risk for osteoporotic fracture independently of age and sex. More unexpectedly, we found that the gradient of risk of serum total cholesterol to predict osteoporotic fracture significantly increases over time (p?=?0.0377).
Serum total cholesterol is an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.
To study the trends in cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged city-dwelling Swedish women from 1980 to 2003.
Using cross-sectional population-based surveys, five random population samples of a total of 1915 women aged between 45 and 54 years, participating in the BEDA study in 1980, WHO MONICA studies in 1985, 1990 and 1995, and a study of 50-year-old women in 2003 were measured for the following parameters: anthropometry, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, smoking habits, blood pressure, physical activity and stress.
Over almost 25 years, middle-aged women gained on average 4.4 kg in weight, with a net increase in body mass index (BMI) from 24.7 to 25.6 kg m?². The proportion of participants classified as obese (=30 kg m?²) increased by 50% from 10.4% to 15.1%. Women who were smokers in 2003 did not have lower BMI values than nonsmokers. Mean serum cholesterol concentrations decreased markedly, whereas smoking habits did not significantly change. The prevalence of hypertension decreased by 8%, whereas that of diabetes remained stable at around 2%. Optimal risk factor status - no smoking, normotension and serum cholesterol
There was made a determination of the correlation relationships (CR) between indices of physical and sexual development (SD) of 1997 adolescents aged from 11 years 6 months to 17 years 5 months 29 days residing in the industrial center of the Southern Urals characterized by high levels of air pollution (API 7-13). Benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde contribute the greatest part to air pollution. The level of SD, time of appearance of secondary sexual characteristics was revealed to be interrelated with the pace of physical development of adolescents, regardless of the gender Children with an accelerated pace of physical development (macrosomatotype) are characterized by advancing sexual development and the earlier appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. Slow pace of physical development (microsomatotype) is characterized by SD retardation and the later appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. The degree of intensity of secondary sexual characteristics and such anthropometric indices as height, body mass are interrelated and have age and gender differences: the maximal CR for these indices is typical for boys aged from 13 to 16 years as for girls--of 13 and 14 years old.