Available standard intrauterine growth curves based on birthweights underestimate foetal growth in preterm period. New growth curves are presented based on data from four Scandinavian centres for 759 ultrasonically estimated foetal weights in 86 uncomplicated pregnancies. Mean weight of boys exceeded that of girls by 2-3%. A uniform SD value of 12% of the mean weight was adopted for the standard curves as the true SD varied non-systematically between 9.1 and 12.4%. Applied to an unselected population of 8663 singleton births, before 210 days of gestation, 32% of birthweights were classified as small-for-gestational age (SGA; i.e. below mean - 2 SD); the corresponding figures were 11.1% for gestational ages between 210 and 258 days, and 2.6% for ages of 259 days or longer. The new growth curves reveal better the true distribution of SGA foetuses and neonates, and are suggested for use in perinatological practice.
There was made a determination of the correlation relationships (CR) between indices of physical and sexual development (SD) of 1997 adolescents aged from 11 years 6 months to 17 years 5 months 29 days residing in the industrial center of the Southern Urals characterized by high levels of air pollution (API 7-13). Benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde contribute the greatest part to air pollution. The level of SD, time of appearance of secondary sexual characteristics was revealed to be interrelated with the pace of physical development of adolescents, regardless of the gender Children with an accelerated pace of physical development (macrosomatotype) are characterized by advancing sexual development and the earlier appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. Slow pace of physical development (microsomatotype) is characterized by SD retardation and the later appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. The degree of intensity of secondary sexual characteristics and such anthropometric indices as height, body mass are interrelated and have age and gender differences: the maximal CR for these indices is typical for boys aged from 13 to 16 years as for girls--of 13 and 14 years old.
to ascertain if standard gestational age charts can be used to accurately predict the gestational age of fetuses of first-generation Oriental immigrants to Canada.
Over a 3-year period, all patients presenting for obstetric ultrasound examinations were invited to participate in the study. The authors recorded biparietal diameter, head circumference, femur length and abdominal circumference for 139 fetuses in the second and third trimesters. A study performed in the first trimester was used as the baseline for gestational age. The data for 126 of the fetuses were complete, and these data were used for the analysis.
For 77 of the fetuses, both parents were Oriental, and for 49, one or both parents were not Oriental; the latter constituted the control group. A total of 1008 individual measurements were obtained, and of these, all but 14 fell within two standard deviations of the norm, according to standard gestational age charts. Of the abnormal measurements, seven were obtained from five fetuses with Oriental parents, and seven were obtained from six fetuses in the control group. The difference between the two groups in the proportion of measurements falling either above or below two standard deviations from the norm was not statistically significant (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.41694).
The authors conclude that standard gestational age charts can be used to determine gestational age in first-generation Oriental immigrants to Canada.