To study the capabilities of cone-bean computed tomography (CBCT) in estimating the bone structure when analyzing anthropological findings.
Twenty-four bone fragments (remains) of Napoléon Bonaparte Imperial Army soldiers who had died at a Königsberg military hospital during their retreat from Russia in the War of 1812 were examined by CBCT. A total of 28 tubular bones with different injury healing signs and a skull with maxillofacial trauma marks were investigated. Furthermore, an object from D.G. Rokhlin's paleopathological collection was used to analyze a complicated humeral infectious process. CBCT was performed by individually selecting the scanning foldings, physicotechnical conditions and regimens in relation to the anatomic location and size of fragments.
Processing of the obtained images reveled fractures of different bones in 19 (65.5%) cases. The signs of ununited fractures were visualized in 20.7% of the samples. Image post-processing showed intraarticular consolidated fractures in 13.8% of the anthropological findings. The CBCT examination of bone fragments exhibited the signs of their fusion. A wound pattern was established in 31% of the samples. The specific features of a bone amputation stump could be characterized in detail in 17.2% of the anthropological findings. 51.7% of the cases were found to have signs of sustained bone inflammatory diseases of various genesis, which in 41.4% of them were presented by linear, bulbar, and assimilated periostal reactions and significantly detectable on CBCT scans. Sequestral cavities were imaged in 31% of the fragments.
The CBCT images are characterized by high informative value (from 7.5 to 10.6 pixels/mm), optimal spatial resolution, definition, and hardness. The software of CBCT involves the parameters and possible postprocessing of images (building of panoramic and mulplanar reconstructions, assessment of the density characteristics of tissues), which allow an analysis of anthropological material, by needlessly destroying them.
There was made a determination of the correlation relationships (CR) between indices of physical and sexual development (SD) of 1997 adolescents aged from 11 years 6 months to 17 years 5 months 29 days residing in the industrial center of the Southern Urals characterized by high levels of air pollution (API 7-13). Benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde contribute the greatest part to air pollution. The level of SD, time of appearance of secondary sexual characteristics was revealed to be interrelated with the pace of physical development of adolescents, regardless of the gender Children with an accelerated pace of physical development (macrosomatotype) are characterized by advancing sexual development and the earlier appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. Slow pace of physical development (microsomatotype) is characterized by SD retardation and the later appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. The degree of intensity of secondary sexual characteristics and such anthropometric indices as height, body mass are interrelated and have age and gender differences: the maximal CR for these indices is typical for boys aged from 13 to 16 years as for girls--of 13 and 14 years old.
to ascertain if standard gestational age charts can be used to accurately predict the gestational age of fetuses of first-generation Oriental immigrants to Canada.
Over a 3-year period, all patients presenting for obstetric ultrasound examinations were invited to participate in the study. The authors recorded biparietal diameter, head circumference, femur length and abdominal circumference for 139 fetuses in the second and third trimesters. A study performed in the first trimester was used as the baseline for gestational age. The data for 126 of the fetuses were complete, and these data were used for the analysis.
For 77 of the fetuses, both parents were Oriental, and for 49, one or both parents were not Oriental; the latter constituted the control group. A total of 1008 individual measurements were obtained, and of these, all but 14 fell within two standard deviations of the norm, according to standard gestational age charts. Of the abnormal measurements, seven were obtained from five fetuses with Oriental parents, and seven were obtained from six fetuses in the control group. The difference between the two groups in the proportion of measurements falling either above or below two standard deviations from the norm was not statistically significant (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.41694).
The authors conclude that standard gestational age charts can be used to determine gestational age in first-generation Oriental immigrants to Canada.