University of Alaska Fairbanks - Z1209.2.C2 M43 ALASKA
Alaska Medical Library - From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 783.
Volleyball has been described as an 'interval' sport with both anaerobic and aerobic components. At the higher skill levels, technical performance may be limited by physical characteristics as well as physical fitness, and performance characteristics such as speed and vertical jump. This investigation compared teams at the two uppermost levels of men's volleyball in Canada for differences in physical, physiological and performance characteristics. The subjects were members of the national (n = 15) and universiade teams (n = 24). The parameters examined included percent body fat, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), anaerobic power, bench press, 20-m sprint time and vertical jumping ability. The only significant difference in physical characteristics between the two teams was in age. Despite similarities in standing and reach height, the national team players had significantly higher block (3.27 vs 3.21 m) and spike (3.43 vs 3.39 m) jumps. An evaluation of anaerobic power measures produced similar power outputs during a modified Wingate test, yet the national team members had higher scores (P less than 0.05) for spike and block jump differences as well as 20-m sprint time. The large aerobic component of elite volleyball play was supported by the high VO2 max value recorded for the national team players (56.7 vs 50.3 ml kg-1 min-1). The results suggest that either years of specific physical conditioning and playing or the selection of individuals for the national team who possess more desirable characteristics as a consequence of genetic endowment, plays a significant role in the preparation of international calibre volleyball players.
By means of certain anthropometrical methods, in accordance with 56 initial data, 262 men and 274 women, Russian nationality, students of Institute of Physical Culture at the age of 21-35 years have been examined. They all are third-grade and second-grade athletes in popular sport games and regularly go in for physical culture. Morphofunctional characteristics, including 74 parameters, that are summarized in three tables (absolute anthropometrical, body proportions and morphofunctional) are presented. The total dimensions of the body (mass--69 +/- 7 kg in the men and 61 +/- 7 kg in the women and body length--174 +/- 7 and 163 +/- 6 sm, respectively) and its parts changed but little during last 20 years, nevertheless, are noticably higher than the standards accepted in the 50s. A slight variability is revealed (in the women a little greater) in most of the anthropometrical parameters, body proportions are near the classical forms. The results of the work reflect favourable role of regular physical exercises for formation of optimal morphofunctional human status, interrelations of muscular, fatty and osseous body components. The low variability of the characteristics obtained demonstrates their typicalness; therefore, it is possible to recommend them as standards for estimation physical development and body built of persons in the given age group.