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340 records – page 1 of 34.

Accumulation of 137Cesium and 90Strontium from abiotic and biotic sources in rodents at Chornobyl, Ukraine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61733
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2001 Sep;20(9):1927-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2001
Author
R K Chesser
B E Rodgers
J K Wickliffe
S. Gaschak
I. Chizhevsky
C J Phillips
R J Baker
Author Affiliation
Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens 30602, USA. rchesser@ttu.edu
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2001 Sep;20(9):1927-35
Date
Sep-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Animals
Animals, Wild
Arvicolinae
Cesium radioisotopes - pharmacokinetics
Diet
Environmental monitoring
Female
Male
Mice
Power Plants
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Soil Pollutants, Radioactive - pharmacokinetics
Strontium Radioisotopes - pharmacokinetics
Tissue Distribution
Trees
Ukraine
Abstract
Bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and laboratory strains of house mice (Mus musculus BALB and C57BL) were relocated into enclosures in a highly contaminated area of the Red Forest near the Chornobyl (Ukraine) Reactor 4 to evaluate the uptake rates of 137Cs and 90Sr from abiotic sources. Mice were provided with uncontaminated food supplies, ensuring that uptake of radionuclides was through soil ingestion, inhalation, or water. Mice were sampled before introduction and were reanalyzed every 10 d for 137Cs uptake. Levels of 90Sr were assessed in subsamples from the native populations and in experimental animals at the termination of the study. Uptake rates in house mice were greater than those in voles for both 137Cs and 90Sr. Daily uptake rates in house mice were estimated at 2.72 x 10(12) unstable atoms per gram (whole body) for 137Cs and 4.04 x 10(10) unstable atoms per gram for 90Sr. Comparable rates in voles were 2.26 x 10(11) unstable atoms per gram for 137Cs and 1.94 x 10(10) unstable atoms per gram for 90Sr. By comparing values from voles in the enclosures to those from wild voles caught within 50 m of the enclosures, it was estimated that only 8.5% of 137Cs was incorporated from abiotic sources, leaving 91.5% being incorporated by uptake from biotic materials. The fraction of 90Sr uptake from abiotic sources was at least 66.7% (and was probably much higher). Accumulated whole-body doses during the enclosure periods were estimated as 174 mGy from intramuscular 137Cs and 68 mGy by skeletal 90Sr in house mice over 40 d and 98 mGy from 137Cs and 19 mGy from 90Sr in voles over 30 d. Thus, uptake of radionuclides from abiotic materials in the Red Forest at Chornobyl is an important source of internal contamination.
PubMed ID
11521818 View in PubMed
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Across space and time: social responses to large-scale biophysical systems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164251
Source
Environ Manage. 2007 Jun;39(6):831-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2007
Author
Dena P MacMynowski
Author Affiliation
Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, Encina Hall, E501, Stanford, CA 94305-6055, USA. macmynowski@stanford.edu
Source
Environ Manage. 2007 Jun;39(6):831-42
Date
Jun-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Wild - growth & development
Canada
Conservation of Natural Resources - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Ecology
Ecosystem
Environment
Humans
Risk Management - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Time Factors
United States
Abstract
The conceptual rubric of ecosystem management has been widely discussed and deliberated in conservation biology, environmental policy, and land/resource management. In this paper, I argue that two critical aspects of the ecosystem management concept require greater attention in policy and practice. First, although emphasis has been placed on the "space" of systems, the "time" -- or rates of change -- associated with biophysical and social systems has received much less consideration. Second, discussions of ecosystem management have often neglected the temporal disconnects between changes in biophysical systems and the response of social systems to management issues and challenges. The empirical basis of these points is a case study of the "Crown of the Continent Ecosystem," an international transboundary area of the Rocky Mountains that surrounds Glacier National Park (USA) and Waterton Lakes National Park (Canada). This project assessed the experiences and perspectives of 1) middle- and upper-level government managers responsible for interjurisdictional cooperation, and 2) environmental nongovernment organizations with an international focus. I identify and describe 10 key challenges to increasing the extent and intensity of transboundary cooperation in land/resource management policy and practice. These issues are discussed in terms of their political, institutional, cultural, information-based, and perceptual elements. Analytic techniques include a combination of environmental history, semistructured interviews with 48 actors, and text analysis in a systematic qualitative framework. The central conclusion of this work is that the rates of response of human social systems must be better integrated with the rates of ecological change. This challenge is equal to or greater than the well-recognized need to adapt the spatial scale of human institutions to large-scale ecosystem processes and transboundary wildlife.
PubMed ID
17415612 View in PubMed
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Addressing historic environmental exposures along the Alaska Highway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107704
Source
Pages 787-795 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):787-795
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
  1 document  
Author
Anna Godduhn
Lawrence Duffy
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA
Source
Pages 787-795 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):787-795
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Animals, Wild
Diet - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - history
Fishes
Food Contamination
Health status
History, 20th Century
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Pilot Projects
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Thyroid Diseases - epidemiology
Abstract
A World War II defense site at Northway, Alaska, was remediated in the 1990s, leaving complex questions regarding historic exposures to toxic waste. This article describes the context, methods, limitations and findings of the Northway Wild Food and Health Project (NWFHP).
The NWFHP comprised 2 pilot studies: the Northway Wild Food Study (NWFS), which investigated contaminants in locally prioritized traditional foods over time, and the Northway Health Study (NHS), which investigated locally suspected links between resource uses and health problems.
This research employed mixed methods. The NWFS reviewed remedial documents and existing data. The NHS collected household information regarding resource uses and health conditions by questionnaire and interview. NHS data represent general (yes or no) personal knowledge that was often second hand. Retrospective cohort comparisons were made of the reported prevalence of 7 general health problems between groups based on their reported (yes or no) consumption of particular resources, for 3 data sets (existing, historic and combined) with a two-tailed Fisher's Exact Test in SAS (n = 325 individuals in 83 households, 24 of which no longer exist).
The NWFS identified historic pathways of exposure to petroleum, pesticides, herbicides, chlorinated byproducts of disinfection and lead from resources that were consumed more frequently decades ago and are not retrospectively quantifiable. The NHS found complex patterns of association between reported resource uses and cancer and thyroid-, reproductive-, metabolic- and cardiac problems.
Lack of detail regarding medical conditions, undocumented histories of exposure, time lapsed since the release of pollution and changes to health and health care over the same period make this exploratory research. Rather than demonstrate causation, these results document the legitimacy of local suspicions and warrant additional investigation. This article presents our findings, with discussion of limitations related to study design and limitations that are inherent to such research.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23984298 View in PubMed
Documents
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Aleutian disease serology, protein electrophoresis, and pathology of the European mink (Mustela lutreola) from Navarra, Spain.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91885
Source
J Zoo Wildl Med. 2008 Sep;39(3):305-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2008
Author
Sánchez-Migallón Guzmán David
Carvajal Ana
García-Marín Juan F
Ferreras María C
Pérez Valentín
Mitchell Mark
Urra Fermín
Ceña Juan C
Author Affiliation
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-8410, USA.
Source
J Zoo Wildl Med. 2008 Sep;39(3):305-13
Date
Sep-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic
Aleutian Mink Disease - epidemiology - mortality
Aleutian Mink Disease Virus - immunology
Animals
Animals, Wild - microbiology - virology
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Cause of Death
Conservation of Natural Resources
Cross-Sectional Studies
Distemper - epidemiology - mortality
Distemper Virus, Canine
Female
Male
Mink
Mycoses - epidemiology - mortality - veterinary
Seasons
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Spain - epidemiology
Abstract
The European mink, Mustela lutreola, has suffered a dramatic decline in Europe during the 20th century and is one of the most endangered carnivores in the world. The subpopulation of European mink from Navarra, Spain, estimated to number approximately 420, represents approximately two thirds of the total number of mink in Spain. Aleutian Disease Virus (ADV) is a parvovirus with a high degree of variability that can infect a broad range of mustelid hosts. The pathogenesis of this virus in small carnivores is variable and can be influenced by both host factors (e.g., species, American mink genotype, and immune status) and viral strain. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the pre-reproductive period of February-March 2004 and 2005 and the postreproductive period of September-December 2004. Mink were intensively trapped along seven rivers that were representative of the European mink habitat in Navarra. Antibody counter immunoelectrophoresis against ADV was performed on 84 European mink blood samples. All the samples were negative. Protein electrophoresis was performed on 93 plasma samples. Nine of those samples (9.6%) had gamma globulin levels exceeding 20% of the total plasma protein. Complete necropsies were performed on 23 cadavers of European mink collected in the area between 2000 and 2005. Seventeen of the mink (74%) had traumatic and hemorrhagic lesions compatible with vehicular impact injuries. Although there were no histopathologic lesions associated with ADV, this study documents the first description of a naturally occurring canine distemper virus infection in a European mink. In addition, pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in three European mink from Spain was reported.
PubMed ID
18816991 View in PubMed
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Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns of African swine fever cases in Russian wild boar does not reveal an endemic situation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265069
Source
Prev Vet Med. 2014 Nov 15;117(2):317-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-15-2014
Author
M. Lange
H. Siemen
S. Blome
H-H Thulke
Source
Prev Vet Med. 2014 Nov 15;117(2):317-25
Date
Nov-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
African Swine Fever - epidemiology - virology
African Swine Fever Virus - growth & development
Algorithms
Animals
Animals, Wild
Computer simulation
Endemic Diseases - veterinary
Russia - epidemiology
Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Sus scrofa - virology
Swine
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal viral disease of domestic pigs and wild boar. ASF was introduced into the southern Russian Federation in 2007 and is now reported to be spreading in populations of wild and domestic suids. An endemic situation in the local wild boar population would significantly complicate management of the disease in the livestock population. To date no sound method exists for identifying the characteristic pattern of an endemic situation, which describes infection persisting from generation to generation in the same population. To support urgent management decisions at the wildlife-livestock interface, a new algorithm was constructed to test the hypothesis of an endemic disease situation in wildlife on the basis of case reports. The approach described here uses spatial and temporal associations between observed diagnostic data to discriminate between endemic and non-endemic patterns of case occurrence. The algorithm was validated with data from an epidemiological simulation model and applied to ASF case data from southern Russia. Based on the algorithm and the diagnostic data available, the null hypothesis of an endemic situation of ASF in wild boar of the region was rejected.
PubMed ID
25205556 View in PubMed
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[A natural focus of icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis in the floodplain of the lower Don and means for its eradication].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature233166
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1988 May;(5):38-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1988
Author
V F Kondratenko
I K Bunin
N S Rodionova
A P Danilkin
E A Iagovkin
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1988 May;(5):38-41
Date
May-1988
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Wild
Arvicolinae
Disease Reservoirs - veterinary
Fresh Water
Humans
Mice
Muridae
Rats
Rodent Control - methods
Rodent Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Russia
Weil Disease - epidemiology - prevention & control - veterinary
Abstract
An active natural focus of icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis has been detected in the area of fish-breeding ponds in Rostov Province, where the intensive epizootic among the population of Norway rats is observed the whole year round (574 animals have been examined, 56 cultures have been isolated). The epizootic process reaches its highest intensity in autumn (the proportion of infected animals exceeds 50%). This natural focus in the area of fish-breeding ponds is epidemiologically dangerous. The limitation of its infectious potential is possible by means of poisoned baits.
PubMed ID
2970742 View in PubMed
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An epidemic of sylvatic rabies in Finland--descriptive epidemiology and results of oral vaccination.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5863
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 1992;33(1):43-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
1992
Author
M. Nyberg
K. Kulonen
E. Neuvonen
C. Ek-Kommonen
M. Nuorgam
B. Westerling
Author Affiliation
Field Department, National Veterinary Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 1992;33(1):43-57
Date
1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Wild
Carnivora
Cats
Cattle
Disease Outbreaks - veterinary
Dogs
Finland - epidemiology
Foxes
Rabies - epidemiology - prevention & control - veterinary
Rabies Vaccines
Vaccination - veterinary
Abstract
When rabies reappeared in Finland in April 1988, the country had been rabies free since 1959. Soon a picture of sylvatic rabies become evident, its main vector and victim being the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Between 8 April 1988 and 16 February 1989, 66 virologically verified cases were recorded (48 raccoon dogs, 12 red foxes, 2 badgers, 2 cats, 1 dog and 1 dairy bull) in an area estimated at 1700 km2 in south-eastern Finland. The greatest distance between recorded cases was 67 km. A positive reaction with monoclonal antibody p-41 indicated that the virus was an arctic-type strain. A field trial on oral immunization of small predators was initiated in September 1988 using Tübingen fox baits according to the Bavarian model of bait distribution. Each bait contained 5*10(7) TCID50/ml modified live rabies virus (SAD-B19). The 6 months' surveillance indicate a seroconversion rate of 72% (N = 126) in the raccoon dog population, 67% (N = 56) in the red foxes and 13% (N = 16) in the badgers, when titers greater than or equal to 1.0 IU/ml are considered seropositive. In the whole follow-up period, no statistically significant difference could be detected between the raccoon dogs and red foxes in the rate of seroconversion or in the uptake of tetracycline from the baits. Notably high antibody levels were recorded in both raccoon dogs and red foxes within 4-5 months after vaccination. Of the seropositive animals, the proportion of animals with titers 3.0 IU/ml or greater was higher in raccoon dogs (73%) than in red foxes (51%) (x2 = 5.29, p less than 0.05). The trial shows that raccoon dogs can be immunized against rabies in the field with vaccine baits originally developed for controlling sylvatic rabies in foxes.
PubMed ID
1598857 View in PubMed
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340 records – page 1 of 34.