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24-h sheltering behaviour of individually kept horses during Swedish summer weather.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276827
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2015 Aug 20;57:45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-20-2015
Author
Elke Hartmann
Richard J Hopkins
Claudia von Brömssen
Kristina Dahlborn
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2015 Aug 20;57:45
Date
Aug-20-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Husbandry - methods - physiology
Animal Welfare - methods - physiology
Animals - methods - physiology
Behavior, Animal - methods - physiology
Circadian Rhythm - methods - physiology
Female - methods - physiology
Horses - methods - physiology
Housing, Animal - methods - physiology
Insects - methods - physiology
Male - methods - physiology
Seasons - methods - physiology
Sweden - methods - physiology
Weather - methods - physiology
Abstract
Provision of shelter for horses kept on summer pasture is rarely considered in welfare guidelines, perhaps because the benefits of shelter in warm conditions are poorly documented scientifically. For cattle, shade is a valued resource during summer and can mitigate the adverse effects of warm weather on well-being and performance. We found in a previous study that horses utilized shelters frequently in summer. A shelter with a roof and closed on three sides (shelter A) was preferred and can reduce insect pressure whereas a shelter with roof and open on three sides was not utilized. However, shelter A restricts the all-round view of a horse, which may be important for horses as flight animals. Therefore, we studied whether a shelter with roof, where only the upper half of the rear wall was closed (shelter B), would be utilized while maintaining insect protection properties and satisfying the horses' sense for security. A third shelter was offered with walls but no roof (shelter C) to evaluate whether the roof itself is an important feature from the horse's perspective. Eight Warmblood horses were tested each for 2?days, kept individually for 24?h in two paddocks with access to shelters A and B, or shelters A and C, respectively. Shelter use was recorded continuously during the night (1800-2400?h, 0200-0600?h) and the following day (0900-1600?h), and insect defensive behaviour (e.g., tail swish) in instantaneous scan samples at 5-min intervals during daytime.
Seven horses used both shelters A and B, but when given the choice between shelters A and C, shelter C was scarcely visited. There was no difference in duration of shelter use between night (105.8???53.6?min) and day (100.8???53.8, P?=?0.829). Daytime shelter use had a significant effect on insect defensive behaviours (P?=?0.027). The probability of performing these behaviours was lowest when horses used shelter A compared to being outside (P?=?0.038).
Horses only utilized shelters with a roof whilst a shelter with roof and closed on three sides had the best potential to lower insect disturbance during daytime in summer.
Notes
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Cites: J Anim Sci. 2015 Feb;93(2):802-1026020760
PubMed ID
26289447 View in PubMed
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A 25 years experience of group-housed sows-reproduction in animal welfare-friendly systems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261597
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2014;56:37
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Stig Einarsson
Ylva Sjunnesson
Fredrik Hultén
Lena Eliasson-Selling
Anne-Marie Dalin
Nils Lundeheim
Ulf Magnusson
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2014;56:37
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Husbandry - standards
Animal Welfare - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Animals
Female
Housing, Animal - standards
Sus scrofa - physiology
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
Since January 1 2013, group housing of sows has been compulsory within the European Union (EU) in all pig holdings with more than ten sows. Sows and gilts need to be kept in groups from 4 weeks after service to 1 week before the expected time of farrowing (Article 3(4) of Directive 2008/120/EC on the protection of pigs). The legislation regarding group housing was adopted already in 2001 and a long transitional period was allowed to give member states and producers enough time for adaptation. Even so, group housing of sows still seems to be uncommon in the EU, and is also uncommon in commercial pig farming systems in the rest of the world. In this review we share our experience of the Swedish 25 years of animal welfare legislation stipulating that sows must be loose-housed which de facto means group housed. The two most important concerns related to reproductive function among group-housed sows are the occurrence of lactational oestrus when sows are group-housed during lactation, and the stress that is associated with group housing during mating and gestation. Field and clinical observations in non-lactating, group-housed sows in Sweden suggest that by making basic facts known about the pig reproductive physiology related to mating, we might achieve application of efficient batch-wise breeding without pharmacological interventions. Group housing of lactating sows has some production disadvantages and somewhat lower productivity would likely have to be expected. Recordings of behavioural indicators in different housing systems suggest a lower welfare level in stalled animals compared with group-housed ones. However, there are no consistent effects on the reproductive performance associated with different housing systems. Experimental studies suggest that the most sensitive period, regarding disturbance of reproductive functions by external stressors, is the time around oestrus. We conclude that by keeping sows according to the pig welfare-friendly Directive 2008/120/EC, it is possible to combine group-housing of sows with good reproductive performance and productivity. However, substantially increased research and development is needed to optimize these systems.
Notes
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Cites: Acta Vet Scand. 1995;36(2):201-127484547
PubMed ID
24910081 View in PubMed
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Accelerated lung function decline in swine confinement workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature208355
Source
Chest. 1997 Jun;111(6):1733-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1997
Author
A. Senthilselvan
J A Dosman
S P Kirychuk
E M Barber
C S Rhodes
Y. Zhang
T S Hurst
Author Affiliation
Centre for Agricultural Medicine, Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon, Canada.
Source
Chest. 1997 Jun;111(6):1733-41
Date
Jun-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aging - physiology
Agriculture
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Cereals
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Lung - physiology
Male
Middle Aged
Respiratory Function Tests - statistics & numerical data
Rural Population
Saskatchewan
Smoking - physiopathology
Swine
Abstract
We conducted a longitudinal study to determine the annual rate decline in pulmonary function measurements in male swine confinement workers. For comparison, a grain farming group and a nonfarming rural-dwelling control group were also chosen for the longitudinal study. Two hundred seventeen swine confinement workers, 218 grain farmers, and 179 nonfarming control subjects had valid pulmonary function measurements at the baseline observation conducted in 1990 to 1991 and at the second observation conducted in 1994 to 1995. The swine confinement workers were younger (mean age=38.3+/-11.7 [SD] years) than the nonfarming control subjects (42.6+/-10.4 years) and the grain farmers (44.5+/-11.9 years). When stratified by age, nonfarming control subjects had the lowest mean annual rate decline in FEV1 and FVC in all age categories. The swine confinement workers had the largest annual rate decline in FEV1 and FVC, and this was most obvious in the middle age categories. After controlling for age, height, smoking, and baseline pulmonary function, swine confinement workers had excess annual decline of 26.1 mL in FEV1 (p=0.0005), 33.5 mL in FVC (p=0.0002), and 42.0 mL/s in forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF[25-75%]) (p=0.02) over nonfarming control subjects. Grain farmers had excess annual decline of 16.4 mL in FEV1 (p=0.03), 26.7 mL in FVC (p=0.002), and 11.2 mL/s in FEF(25-75%) (p=0.38) over control subjects. These findings suggest that workers engaged in the swine industry and grain farmers appear prone to accelerated yearly losses in lung function and may therefore be at risk for the future development of chronic airflow limitation.
PubMed ID
9187201 View in PubMed
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The accuracy of Genomic Selection in Norwegian red cattle assessed by cross-validation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98928
Source
Genetics. 2009 Nov;183(3):1119-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
Tu Luan
John A Woolliams
Sigbjørn Lien
Matthew Kent
Morten Svendsen
Theo H E Meuwissen
Author Affiliation
Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Box 5003, N-1432 As, Norway. tu.luan@umb.no
Source
Genetics. 2009 Nov;183(3):1119-26
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Animal Husbandry - methods
Animals
Bayes Theorem
Breeding - methods
Cattle - genetics - metabolism
Female
Genome - genetics
Genome-Wide Association Study
Genotype
Male
Milk - metabolism - standards
Norway
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Quantitative Trait Loci - genetics
Reproducibility of Results
Selection, Genetic
Abstract
Genomic Selection (GS) is a newly developed tool for the estimation of breeding values for quantitative traits through the use of dense markers covering the whole genome. For a successful application of GS, accuracy of the prediction of genomewide breeding value (GW-EBV) is a key issue to consider. Here we investigated the accuracy and possible bias of GW-EBV prediction, using real bovine SNP genotyping (18,991 SNPs) and phenotypic data of 500 Norwegian Red bulls. The study was performed on milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, first lactation mastitis traits, and calving ease. Three methods, best linear unbiased prediction (G-BLUP), Bayesian statistics (BayesB), and a mixture model approach (MIXTURE), were used to estimate marker effects, and their accuracy and bias were estimated by using cross-validation. The accuracies of the GW-EBV prediction were found to vary widely between 0.12 and 0.62. G-BLUP gave overall the highest accuracy. We observed a strong relationship between the accuracy of the prediction and the heritability of the trait. GW-EBV prediction for production traits with high heritability achieved higher accuracy and also lower bias than health traits with low heritability. To achieve a similar accuracy for the health traits probably more records will be needed.
PubMed ID
19704013 View in PubMed
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Ache, pain, and discomfort: the reward for working with many cows and sows?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166311
Source
J Agromedicine. 2006;11(2):45-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Christina Kolstrup
Marianne Stål
Stefan Pinzke
Peter Lundqvist
Author Affiliation
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agricultural Biosystems and Technology, Alnarp, Sweden. christina.kolstrup@jbt.slu.se
Source
J Agromedicine. 2006;11(2):45-55
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Agricultural Workers' Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Animal Husbandry - manpower - methods
Back Pain - epidemiology - etiology
Cumulative Trauma Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Dairying - manpower - methods
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Workload
Abstract
The main purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence of perceived symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among workers on large-scale dairy and pig farms in Sweden (herd size more than 300 cows and 450 sows) and to identify potential risk factors in the development of MSD. A study based on questionnaires was carried out among 42 workers on 10 large dairy farms and among 37 workers on 10 large pig farms in Southern Sweden during the autumn of 2002. Most importantly, the study showed that 86% of the dairy workers and 78% of the pig workers reported some kind of MSD during a period of 12 months prior to the study. The most frequently reported MSD among both the dairy and the pig workers were in the "upper extremities" (52% and 62%, respectively) especially in the shoulders and in "the back" (60% and 57%, respectively) especially in the lower back. Furthermore, being of short stature, doing repetitive work, working in awkward positions and being exposed to dust were significant risk factors in having MSD among the workers in this study. Thus, working with many cows and sows on large-scale farms in Sweden can be considered as a high risk job with regard to MSD.
PubMed ID
17135142 View in PubMed
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Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae seroprevalence in farmed wild boars in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261057
Source
J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014 Dec;45(4):813-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Outi Hälli
Eve Ala-Kurikka
Per Wallgren
Mari Heinonen
Source
J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014 Dec;45(4):813-8
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actinobacillus Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae - isolation & purification
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Finland - epidemiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Sus scrofa
Abstract
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of serum antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) in Finnish farmed wild boars and to evaluate basic risk factors for seropositivity of the agent. A sampling frame was compiled based on the national record of wild boar farmers (n = 117), and 26 herds were included in the study. Serum samples (n = 206) were obtained from all animals slaughtered from these herds during the 2007-2008 period. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques were used to detect the possible presence of antibodies toward 12 serotypes of APP. Altogether, 1,442 analyses were performed, out of which 35 (2.4%) exceeded the positive cut-off value. Correspondingly, 26 of the pigs (12.6%) were found to be seropositive for any serotype of APP. The apparent animal prevalence of the cross-reacting APP serotypes 1, 9, and 11 was 3.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1-7%); it was 0.5% (CI 0-1%) for serotype 2; 3.4% (CI 1-6%) for serotypes 3, 6, and 8; 7.3% (CI 4-11%) for serotypes 4 and 7; 0.5% (CI 0-1%) for serotype 10; and 1.5% (CI 0-3%) for serotype 12. No antibodies against serotype 5s were detected. The apparent farm prevalence of APP serotypes 1,9, and 11 was 15.4% (CI 2-29%); that of serotype 2 was 3.8% (CI 0-11%); that of serotypes 3, 6, and 8 was 11.5% (CI 0-24%); that of serotypes 4 and 7 was 34.6% (CI 16-53%); that of serotype 10 was 3.8% (CI 0-11%); and that of serotype 12 was 7.7% (CI 0-18%). In conclusion, the prevalence of serum antibodies to different APP serotypes was low in farmed wild boar. Risk factor analysis did not reveal any significant animal- or herd-level risk factors for seropositivity of the agent.
PubMed ID
25632667 View in PubMed
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[A descriptive clinical study of a type of arthritis in beekeepers of the Badajoz area of La Siberia Extremeña]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature14332
Source
Med Clin (Barc). 1995 Jul 1;105(5):164-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-1995
Author
J. Peña
J M Salazar
R. Ortega
J L Alvarez
J E Campillo
M D Torres
Author Affiliation
Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Hospital Infanta Cristina, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz.
Source
Med Clin (Barc). 1995 Jul 1;105(5):164-7
Date
Jul-1-1995
Language
Spanish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Agricultural Workers' Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Arthritis - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Bees
Chronic Disease
Diagnosis, Differential
English Abstract
Female
Humans
Insect Bites and Stings - complications
Male
Middle Aged
Random Allocation
Spain - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The appearance of episodes of arthritis has been detected in beekeepers in the Siberia Extremadura (Spain) related to working with the hives. This present work describes the clinical features of such arthritic syndrome. METHODS: Sixty cases were selected at random from a previous epidemiological study to undergo a clinical protocol that included, anamnesis, physical signs, haematological, biochemical and immunological analyses, and radiological exploration of hands, wrists, feet, and pelvis. RESULTS: The picture is characterized by episodes of oligoarthritis associated with bee-stings in the affected joints or nearby. The most frequent radiologic lesions are pinched articular lines, sclerosis, and the presence of geodes. Analytically, there was frequent eosinophilia, abnormalities in haemostasis tests, and a rise in serum alkaline phosphatase. CONCLUSIONS: An acute inflammatory oligoarthritis of unknown cause has been described which affects the hands asymmetrically, and which is found in beekeepers in relation to their work with the hives. It occasionally involves into a chronic localized arthropathy capable of provoking ankylosis and permanent articular disability.
PubMed ID
7630227 View in PubMed
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Adopting control principles in a novel setting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83051
Source
Vet Microbiol. 2006 Feb 25;112(2-4):265-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-25-2006
Author
Wahlström Helene
Englund Lena
Author Affiliation
Department of Disease Control and Biosecurity, Zoonosis Center, National Veterinary Institute, SE-751 89 Uppsala, Sweden. helene.wahlstrom@sva.se
Source
Vet Microbiol. 2006 Feb 25;112(2-4):265-71
Date
Feb-25-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Husbandry - methods - standards
Animals
Cattle
Communicable Disease Control - methods
Deer
Meat - microbiology
Mycobacterium bovis - isolation & purification
Population Surveillance - methods
Sweden - epidemiology
Tuberculin Test - veterinary
Tuberculosis - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control - veterinary
Abstract
The paper describes the introduction of Mycobacterium bovis into Swedish deer herds and its possible consequences. The different control strategies applied are summarized as well as their shortcomings under the conditions of the Swedish outbreak. An alternative control, to be used in extensive deer herds, based only on slaughter and meat inspection is described. Finally, the efficiency of the implemented control and surveillance systems are discussed and possible improvements suggested.
PubMed ID
16325356 View in PubMed
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After Dolly--ethical limits to the use of biotechnology on farm animals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83140
Source
Theriogenology. 2006 Mar 15;65(5):992-1004
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2006
Author
Lassen Jesper
Gjerris Mickey
Sandøe Peter
Author Affiliation
Centre for Bioethics and Risk Assessment, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg C, Denmark. jlas@kvl.dk
Source
Theriogenology. 2006 Mar 15;65(5):992-1004
Date
Mar-15-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Husbandry - ethics
Animal Welfare - ethics
Animals
Animals, Genetically Modified
Biotechnology - ethics
Cloning, Organism - ethics - veterinary
Humans
Public Opinion
Risk assessment
Abstract
The cloning of Dolly the sheep gave rise to a widespread call for limits on interference with life. Until recently, the main limits were technical: what it is possible to do. Now scientists are faced with ethical limits as well: what it is acceptable to do. In this context, we take ethics to involve systematic and rational reflection on moral issues raised in the public sphere. The concerns of the general public are not necessarily valid, but they are the best point of departure if the discussion is to lead to a socially robust framework for setting limits to the use of animal biotechnology. To assess public understanding, we examine two sources of data: Eurobarometer surveys from 1991 to 2002 and a qualitative interview study carried out in Denmark in 2000. Based on these sources, we formulate, and then discuss closely, the following concerns: dangers to human health and the environment, animal welfare, animal integrity, and usefulness. In the final part of the article, it is proposed that a principle of proportionality should be the foundation for socially robust applications of animal biotechnology. Only in cases where the usefulness of the technology can be said to outweigh countervailing moral concerns, as in biomedical research, will applications of animal biotechnology stand up to scrutiny in the public sphere.
PubMed ID
16253321 View in PubMed
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Ageing Cattle: The Use of Radiographic Examinations on Cattle Metapodials from Eketorp Ringfort on the Island of Öland in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273180
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(9):e0137109
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Ylva Telldahl
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(9):e0137109
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Determination by Skeleton - methods
Agriculture - history - methods
Animal Husbandry - history - methods
Animals
Cattle - growth & development
Cattle Diseases - history - radiography
Cumulative Trauma Disorders - history - radiography - veterinary
Female
History, Ancient
Islands
Male
Meat
Metatarsal Bones - growth & development - radiography
Radiometric Dating
Sex Factors
Sweden
Waste Disposal Facilities
Abstract
In this paper conventional X-ray analysis of cattle metapodials is used to study the age structure of slaughtered cattle at Eketorp ringfort on the island of Öland, Sweden. The X-ray analyses suggest that several animals in both phases were slaughtered aged 4-8 years. More oxen/bulls than cows reached the advanced age of over 8 years, yet in phase III more oxen/bulls seem to have been slaughtered between the ages of 2 and 8 years. These differences may reflect a change in demand for meat related to the character of the site. The results also show a correlation between metapodials with a pathology connected to biomechanical stress and older animals. This suggests that male cattle were used both in meat production and as draught animals. Asymmetry in male metatarsals such as distal broadening of the lateral part of the medial trochlea was visible on the X-ray images. The bone element also indicates a denser outer cortex of the medial diaphysis in comparison to the inner medulla. This could be the result of repetitive mechanical stress. Two metatarsals from cows were documented with distal asymmetry indicating that cows were also used as working animals. Bone elements with changes in the articular surfaces were more common in metapodials from cows with an X-ray age of over 3-4 years. These results highlighted the slaughter age difference between oxen/bulls and cows, enabling a better understanding of animal husbandry and the selection of draught cattle at Eketorp ringfort.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26336086 View in PubMed
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417 records – page 1 of 42.