Purinergic signaling plays an important role in inflammation and vascular integrity, but little is known about purinergic mechanisms during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in humans.
The objective of this study is to study markers of purinergic signaling in a cohort of patients with peripheral artery disease.
Plasma ATP and ADP levels and serum nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1/CD39) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 activities were measured in 226 patients with stable peripheral artery disease admitted for nonurgent invasive imaging and treatment. The major findings were that ATP, ADP, and CD73 values were higher in atherosclerotic patients than in controls without clinically evident peripheral artery disease (P
Previous studies have indicated that sex differences may exist in the pharmacological management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), with female patients being treated less aggressively.
To determine if previously reported sex differences in AMI medication use were also evident among all AMI patients treated at hospitals in an urban Canadian city.
All patients who had a primary discharge diagnosis of AMI from all three adult care hospitals in Calgary, Alberta, in the 1998/1999 fiscal year were identified from hospital administrative records (n=914). A standardized, detailed chart review was conducted. Information collected from the medical charts included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, comorbid conditions, and cardiovascular medication use during hospitalization and at discharge.
Similar proportions of female and male patients were treated with thrombolytics, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, nitrate, heparin, diuretics and digoxin. Among patients aged 75 years and over, a smaller proportion of female patients received acetylsalicylic acid in hospital than did male patients (87% versus 95%; P=0.026). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that, after correction for age, use of other anticoagulants/antiplatelets and death within 24 h of admission, sex was no longer an independent predictor for receipt of acetylsalicylic acid in hospital. Medications prescribed at discharge were similar between male and female patients.
The results from this Canadian chart review study, derived from detailed clinical data, indicate that the pattern of pharmacological treatment of female and male AMI patients during hospitalization and at discharge was very similar. No sex differences were evident in the treatment of AMI among patients treated in an urban Canadian centre.
Overall fifty one patients with chronic cardiac insufficiency (ChCI) were studied for changes in parameters characterizing hemodynamics and lipid peroxidation (LPO) under treatment with kapoten and prazosin. Kapoten was found to be capable of exerting an antioxidant effect and working in ways beneficial for the pulmonary circulation, while prazosin is generally indicated to patients with ChCI presenting with increased end diastolic pressure in the left ventricle. Prazosin activates LPO, for which reason its pro-oxidant action needs to be drug-corrected. Because of marked pharmacologic effects of both drugs in dealing with refractory circulatory insufficiency it is advisable that further studies be made in order that we might be able to determine indications for kapoten and prazosin therapy in coronary patients as well as those with arterial hypertension, cardiomyopathies, valvular defects, ChCI with complications more accurately.
The current survival trends in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not known. A population-based study using administrative data to examine the short and long term survival of patients after AMI in Alberta between 1994 and 1999 was conducted.
AMI patients were identified from hospital discharge data. Temporal changes in the adjusted (age, sex, AMI anatomical location and comorbidities) fatality rate were analyzed in 19,928 AMI patients.
The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of hospitalization for AMI in Alberta significantly declined from 169.6 per 100,000 population in 1994 to 160.8 per 100,000 in 1999 (P=0.03). The risk-adjusted in-hospital case fatality rate from all causes was 11.4% (95% CI 10.6% to 12.3%) in 1994 versus 9.2% (8.4% to 10.1%) in 1999; the 30-day case fatality rate was 12.6% (11.7% to 13.6%) in 1994 versus 10.1% (9.1% to 11.0%) in 1999; and the one-year case fatality rate was 19.0% (17.8% to 20.1%) in 1994 versus 14.9% (13.8% to 16.0%) in 1999. The percentage of hospitalized AMI patients who underwent coronary angiography within one year after admission rose from 48.2% in 1994 to 52.4% in 1999; percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty increased from 25.5% to 35.0% and coronary artery bypass surgery increased from 9.7% to 12.6%. Prescriptions for pharmacological drugs at discharge increased from 1994 to 1999 among patients aged 65 and older: from 29.5% in 1994 to 41.0% in 1999 for beta-blockers, from 5.2% to 18.7% for lipid lowering agents and from 14.0% to 20.5% for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
There was a modest improvement in patient survival after AMI between 1994 and 1999. The improvements may be associated with increasing use of revascularization and pharmacological therapy provided in the management of AMI.
Therapy for management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) varies according to patient, prescriber and geographical characteristics.
To describe the in-hospital use of reperfusion therapy for ST elevation MI (STEMI) and discharge use of acetylsalicylic acid, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and statins in patients presenting with either STEMI or non-STEMI in Canada from 1999 to 2002.
Four Canadian registries (FASTRAK II, Canadian Acute Coronary Syndromes, Enhanced Feedback for Effective Cardiac Treatment and Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia) were used to identify patients with AMI in Canada and to measure in-hospital reperfusion and medication use. Use rates were compared by age, sex, time period and geographical area, according to available data.
Use rates for reperfusion in STEMI patients ranged from 60% to 70%, primarily representing fibrinolytic therapy. A delay in presentation to hospital after symptom onset represented an impediment to timely therapy, which was particularly pronounced for women and elderly patients. Overall, less than 50% of patients met the door-to-needle target of less than 30 min. Medication use rates at discharge increased from 1999/2000 to 2000/2001 across the different data sources: acetylsalicylic acid, 83% to 88%; beta-blockers, 74% to 89%; ACEIs, 54% to 67%; statins, 41% to 53%; and calcium antagonists, 21% to 32%.
Canadian and provincial rates of use of evidence-based medications for the treatment of AMI have increased over time, although there remains room for improvement. A single, comprehensive data source would supply better insights into the management of AMI in Canada.
Population studies of statin adherence are generally restricted to one to two years of follow-up and do not analyze adherence to other drugs.
To report long-term adherence rates for statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta-blockers in patients who recently experienced a first cardiovascular event.
Linked administrative databases in the province of Saskatchewan were used in this retrospective cohort study. Eligible patients received a new statin prescription within one year of their first cardiovascular event between 1994 and 2001. Adherence to statins, beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors was assessed from the first statin prescription to a subsequent cardiovascular event.
Of 1221 eligible patients, the proportion of patients adherent to statin medications dropped to 60.3% at one year and 48.8% at five years. The decline in the proportion of adherent patients was most notable during the first two years (100% to 53.7%). Several factors were associated with statin adherence, including age (P = 0.012), number of physician service days (P = 0.037), chronic disease score (P = 0.032), beta-blocker adherence (P
Several studies have shown that treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) does not meet the goals set in recommendations. The aim of this study was to investigate the adequacy of CHD drug treatment and secondary prevention measures, particularly with respect to age and gender biases, in a Finnish university hospital setting.
The participant pool consisted of patients in FINCAVAS (Finnish Cardiovascular Study), which is a cohort study recruiting consecutive patients performing a clinical exercise test at Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. 802 patients (581 men, 221 women) with a prior diagnosis of CHD recruited between October 2001 and December 2004 were included in the analysis.
Only roughly 12% of both men and women had an optimal risk factor profile. High blood pressure and hypercholesterolaemia were more common in women than in men, whereas smoking was more frequent among men. Men used ACE inhibitors (32.9% vs 20.4%, respectively), beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (80.8% vs 68.3%, respectively) and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) [69.7% vs 58.8%, respectively] more frequently than women, but the frequency of use of these medications was also not at the recommended levels in men. Risk factor control is poorer in older than younger age groups.
CHD patients, particularly women, who performed an exercise stress test in a university hospital are suboptimally treated.
This study examined the possible age- and gender-related differences in the use of secondary medical prevention following primary vascular reconstruction in a population-based long-term follow-up study.
Using information from nationwide Danish registers, we identified all patients undergoing primary vascular reconstruction in-between 1996 and 2006 (n = 20,761). Data were obtained on all filled prescriptions 6 months and 3, 5 and 10 years after primary vascular reconstruction. Comparisons were made across age and gender groups, using men 40-60 years old as a reference.
Compared to current guidelines the overall use of secondary medical prevention was moderate to low (e.g., lipid-lowering drugs 49.5%, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ACE/ATII) 43.4%, combination of lipid-lowering drugs and anti-platelet therapy and any anti-hypertensive therapy 44.7%). A decline was observed between 6 months and 3 years after surgery. Patients >80 years old were less likely to be prescribed lipid-lowering drugs and combination therapy (e.g.: adjusted risk ratio (RR) 5 years after surgery for men and women 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39-1.02) and 0.48 (95%CI: 0.31-0.75), respectively, whereas smaller and statistical non-significant gender-related differences were observed. The age- and gender-related differences appeared eliminated or substantially reduced in the latest part of the study period (2001-2007).
We found moderate to low use of secondary medical prevention in Denmark compared with recommendations from clinical guidelines. However, the use has increased in recent years and age- and gender-related differences have been reduced or even eliminated.