The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is a reliable method of delineating the extent of middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. Our aim was to retrospectively compare the accuracy of ASPECTS on noncontrast CT, CT angiography (CTA) source images, and CT perfusion maps of cerebral blood volume (CBV) during the first 3 hours of middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke.
Objectives. The main aim of the Aiming toWards Evidence baSed inTerpretation of Cardiac biOmarkers in patients pResenting with chest pain (WESTCOR-study) (Clinical Trials number NCT02620202) is to improve diagnostic pathways for patients presenting to the Emergency department (ED) with acute chest pain. Design. The WESTCOR-study is a two center, cross-sectional and prospective observational study recruiting unselected patients presenting to the ED with suspected non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Patient inclusion started September 2015 and we plan to include 2250 patients, finishing in 2019. The final diagnosis will be adjudicated by two independent cardiologists based on all available information including serial high sensitivity cardiac troponin measurements, coronary angiography, coronary CT angiography and echocardiography. The study includes one derivation cohort (N?=?985) that will be used to develop rule out/rule in algorithms for NSTEMI and NSTE-ACS (if possible) using novel troponin assays, and to validate established NSTEMI algorithms, with and without clinical scoring systems. The study further includes one subcohort (n?=?500) where all patients are examined with coronary CT angiography independent of biomarker status, aiming to assess the associations between biomarkers and the extent and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Finally, an external validation cohort (N?=?750) will be included at Stavanger University Hospital. Prospective studies will be based on the merged cohorts. Conclusion. The WESTCOR study will provide new diagnostic algorithms for early inclusion and exclusion of NSTE-ACS and insights in the associations between cardiovascular biomarkers, CT-angiographic findings and short and long-term clinical outcomes.
The introduction of brain imaging with computed tomography revolutionised the treatment of patients with acute ischaemic stroke. With the visual differentiation of haemorrhagic stroke from ischaemic stroke, thrombolytic therapy became feasible. The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score was devised to quantify the extent of early ischaemic changes in the middle cerebral artery territory on noncontrast computed tomography. With its systematic approach, the score is simple and reliable. However, the assessment of early ischaemic changes and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT scoring require training. The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score is a strong predictor of functional outcome. Furthermore, the effectiveness of intraarterial thrombolysis in patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion shows effect modification by the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score. This review summarises the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score methodology. We illustrate current knowledge regarding Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score applied to clinical trials and comment on how Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score may facilitate clinical treatment decision making and future trial design. Moreover, we introduce a modification of the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score methodology that disregards isolated cortical swelling, i.e. focal brain swelling without associated parenchymal hypoattenuation, as early ischaemic changes in the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score system.
To clarify the reasons and beneficial effects and duration of arteriovenous fistula patency after radiological interventions in arteriovenous fistula. The patients investigated were referred due to arteriovenous fistula access flow problems.
In 174 patients, 522 radiological investigations and endovascular treatments such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty were analyzed, retrospectively. All investigations were performed due to clinical suspicion of impaired arteriovenous fistula function.
Arterial stenosis was significantly more frequent among patients with diabetic nephropathy (p?
The underlying pathology in aortic stenosis (AS) and coronary artery stenosis (CAS) is similar including atherosclerosis and calcification. We hypothesize that coronary artery calcification (CAC) is likely to correlate with aortic root calcification (ARC) rather than with aortic valve calcification (AVC), due to tissue similarity between the two types of vessel rather than with the valve leaflet tissue.
We studied 212 consecutive patients (age 72.5 ± 7.9 years, 91 females) with AS requiring aortic valve replacement (AVR) in two Heart Centers, who underwent multidetector cardiac CT preoperatively. CAC, AVC and ARC were quantified using Agatston scoring. Correlations were tested by Spearman's test and Mann-Whitney U-test was used for comparing different subgroups; bicuspid (BAV) vs tricuspid (TAV) aortic valve.
CAC was present in 92%, AVC in 100% and ARC in 82% of patients. CAC correlated with ARC (rho = 0.51, p 50%), but these were not different in the pattern of calcification from those without CAS. CAC was consistently higher in patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis compared to those without.
The observed relationship between coronary and aortic root calcification suggests a diffuse arterial disease. The lack of relationship between coronary and aortic valve calcification suggests a different pathology.
High-sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) is an individual predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship between hs-TnI and coronary artery calcification (CAC) as determined by computed tomography (CT) has not previously been investigated in a general population.
1173 randomized, middle-aged subjects without known CVD underwent a non-contrast cardiac-CT scan for CAC determination. Hs-TnI was detected using ARCHITECT STAT High Sensitive Troponin-I immunoassay. Total 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk was estimated using HeartScore. The relationship between hs-TnI and CAC was assessed using logistic regression analyses and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC).
Concentrations of hs-TnI above the limit of detection were measured in 89.3% of all subjects. Presence of CAC (Agatston score >0) was detected in 29% in the lowest hs-TnI quartile compared with 55% in the highest, with a stepwise increase over the quartiles. In fully adjusted regression models with dichotomous CAC outcomes, hs-TnI was able to predict presence of CAC (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.03-1.51, p = 0.025) and an Agatston score >100 (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.08-1.71, p = 0.009). Subjects in the fourth hs-TnI quartile had an increased risk for presence of CAC (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.06-2.26, p = 0.024) and for an Agatston score >100 (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.04-3.18, p = 0.035), when compared with the first quartile. Addition of hs-TnI to HeartScore improved the ROCAUC from 0.671 to 0.695 (p
Longitudinal deformation has been shown to deteriorate with progressive aortic stenosis as well as ischemic heart disease. Despite that both conditions share risk factors and are often coexisting, studies have not assessed the influence on longitudinal deformation for both conditions simultaneously. Thus the purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between subclinical ischemic heart disease and global and regional longitudinal strain in asymptomatic patients with significant aortic stenosis. Prevalent patients with a diagnosis of aortic stenosis at six hospitals in the Greater Copenhagen area were screened for inclusion. A total of 104 asymptomatic patients with moderate-severe aortic stenosis (aortic valve area =1.5 cm(2)) fulfilled study criteria and underwent advanced echocardiographic analysis and coronary angiography by multi-detector computed tomography. Angiography revealed coronary stenosis >50% in 31% (n = 32). All regional longitudinal strain measures (apical, mid and basal longitudinal strain) were significant predictors of significant coronary stenosis (>70% stenosis), but only apical and mid longitudinal strain were significant predictors in multivariable analyses independent of aortic valve area, stroke volume index, pro-BNP, valvulo-arterial impedance, body mass index and heart rate. In linear regression models with both aortic valve area and significant coronary stenosis, apical (p
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that diminished blood flow may cause low back symptoms and intervertebral disc degeneration. PURPOSE: To explore the association between lumbar arterial stenosis as detected by two-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (2D TOF-MRA) and lumbar pain symptoms in an occupational cohort of middle-aged Finnish males. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 228 male subjects aged 36 to 55 years (mean 47 years) were imaged with 2D TOF-MRA. Additionally, 20 randomly selected subjects were scanned with contrast-enhanced MRA (ceMRA). In each subject, the first (L1) to fourth (L4) segmental lumbar arteries were evaluated for lumbar artery stenosis using a dichotomic scale. One subject was excluded because of poor image quality, reducing the study population to 227 subjects. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between arterial stenosis in 2D TOF-MRA and low back pain and sciatica symptoms (intensity, duration, frequency). RESULTS: Comparing 2D TOF-MRA and ceMRA images, the kappa value (95% confidence interval) was 0.52 (0.31-0.73). The intraobserver reliability kappa value for 2D TOF-MRA was 0.85 (0.77-0.92), and interobserver kappa was 0.57 (0.49-0.65). The sensitivity of 2D TOF-MRA in detecting stenosis was 0.58, the accuracy 0.89, and the specificity 0.94. In 97 (43%) subjects all arteries were normal, whereas 130 (57%) had at least one stenosed artery. The left L4 artery was most often affected. The degree of arterial stenosis was associated with intensity of low back and sciatic pain, and sciatica pain duration during the past 3 months. CONCLUSION: 2D TOF-MRA is an acceptable imaging method for arterial stenosis compared to ceMRA. Arterial stenosis was associated with subjective pain symptoms, indicating a role of decreased nutrition in spinal disorders.
Atherosclerosis exacts a large toll on society in the form of cardiovascular morbidity, mortality, and resource use and is exacerbated by the epidemics of obesity and diabetes. Consequently, there is a critical need for more-effective methods of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the complications of atherosclerosis. Careful and well-conducted large population studies are needed in order to truly understand the natural history of the disease, its imaging biomarkers, and their links to patient outcomes. The Canadian Atherosclerosis Imaging Network (CAIN) is a unique research network funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Canada Foundation for Innovation and designed to address these needs and to enable large population-based imaging studies. The central objective of CAIN is to move innovations in imaging toward their broad application in clinical research and clinical practice for the improved evaluation of cardiac and neurologic vascular disease. CAIN is established as an international resource for studying the natural history, progression, and regression of atherosclerosis, as well as novel therapeutic interventions aimed at atherosclerosis. The network represents Canada's leading atherosclerosis imaging experts, embodying both basic imaging science and clinical imaging research. The network is improving methods of detection and treatment of atherosclerosis and, through a better understanding of the underlying disease itself, improving strategies for disease prevention. The benefits are expected to appear in the next 2 to 3 years. CAIN will drive innovation in imaging technology within the field of cardiology and neurology and improve health outcomes in Canada and worldwide.
We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) in daily use in a real-world patient population.
Between March 2013 and September 2014, 224 patients (233 lesions) were treated with BVS at a tertiary care center. Patients underwent follow-up coronary angiography 3-6 months after implantation. Clinical presentations were stable angina in 101 patients (45.1%), unstable angina in 47 (21.0%), NSTEMI in 38 (17.0%), and STEMI in 38 (17.0%) patients. Twenty-two patients (27 lesions) had chronic total occlusion (CTO). Procedural success was achieved in all patients. Two patients died in the follow-up period due to BVS thrombosis (0.9%). In-hospital death occurred in further 3 patients (1.3%) due to other causes not related to the BVS implantation. Total BVS thrombosis was 3.1% (7 patients) and there was only 1 case of relevant restenosis on angiographic follow-up. The overall incidence of major adverse cardiac events was 11 (4.9%).
Mid-term follow-up after implantation of BVS suggests a satisfactory safety profile and low restenosis rate in routine daily practice involving a large range of complex lesions.