To assess the risk of systemic adverse events associated with intravitreal injections of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibiting drugs.
Population based nested case-control study.
91,378 older adults with a history of physician diagnosed retinal disease identified between 1 April 2006 and 31 March 2011. Cases were 1477 patients admitted to hospital for ischaemic stroke, 2229 admitted for an acute myocardial infarction, 1059 admitted or assessed in an emergency department for venous thromboembolism, and 2623 admitted for congestive heart failure. Event-free controls (at a ratio of 5:1) were matched to cases on the basis of year of birth, sex, history of the outcome in the previous 5 years, and diabetes.
Exposure to vascular endothelial growth factor inhibiting drugs identified within 180 days before the index date.
After adjustment for potential confounders, participants who had ischaemic stroke, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or venous thromboembolism were not more likely than control participants to have been exposed to either bevacizumab (adjusted odds ratios of 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 1.34) for ischaemic stroke, 1.04 (0.77 to 1.39) for acute myocardial infarction, 0.81 (0.49 to 1.34) for venous thromboembolism, and 1.21 (0.91 to 1.62) for congestive heart failure) or ranibizumab (adjusted odds ratios 0.87 (0.68 to 1.10) for ischaemic stroke, 0.90 (0.72 to 1.11) for acute myocardial infarction, 0.88 (0.67 to 1.16) for venous thromboembolism, and 0.87 (0.70 to 1.07) for congestive heart failure). Similarly, a secondary analysis of exclusive users of bevacizumab or ranibizumab showed no differences in risk between the two drugs (adjusted odds ratios for bevacizumab relative to ranibizumab of 1.03 (0.67 to 1.60) for ischaemic stroke, 1.23 (0.85 to 1.77) for acute myocardial infarction, 0.92 (0.51 to 1.69) for venous thromboembolism, and 1.35 (0.93 to 1.95) for congestive heart failure). These findings were consistent for all but one outcome in subgroup analyses.
Intravitreal injections of bevacizumab and ranibizumab were not associated with significant risks of ischaemic stroke, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or venous thromboembolism.
Cites: Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 Mar;137(3):486-9515013873
This article provides information about development and introduction of regional standard of specialized medical care for patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration in medical practice in Tumen region. It discovered new opportunities for improvement of ophthalmologic care in the region.
As the off-label use of intravitreal bevacizumab continues for an increasing number of ocular conditions, a systematic review of the literature aimed at detecting temporally associated systemic adverse events was undertaken.
Systematic review of the literature and a health regulatory database.
A total of 22 different clinical studies representing 12,699 patients.
A systematic review indexed by Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, the Cochrane database (CENTRAL), and the Canadian Adverse Drug Reaction Information System Database was performed. All clinical studies with at least 100 eyes injected with bevacizumab and case reports documenting suspected events were included for review.
A total of 22 different clinical studies were reviewed, including an international internet survey, 6 retrospective studies assessing the safety of intravitreal bevacizumab, and 15 clinical trials. The most common adverse systemic event reported in these studies, representing 12,699 patients was an increase in blood pressure (0.46% of patients), followed by cerebrovascular accidents (0.21% of patients), and myocardial infarction (0.19% of patients). The 6 case reports documented suspected events not previously identified and only 1 systemic event from the Health Canada database was retrieved.
The systemic events temporally associated with intravitreal bevacizumab are mainly of cardiovascular and neurological origin and can be predicted from an exaggerated pharmacology, although a causal association cannot be established at this time. Health Canada's spontaneous drug reporting system is an underutilized resource and a more active surveillance system such as a patient registry may be better suited to establish the low rates of systemic adverse events following bevacizumab use in ophthalmology.
Comment In: Can J Ophthalmol. 2010 Jun;45(3):215-720628419
BACKGROUND: A diversity of cytotoxic and molecularly targeting agents are now offered for colorectal cancer; 5-fluorouracil was until recently the only available therapy. Molecular targeting agents inhibit cellular signalling mechanisms that govern tumour cell proliferation and survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The article is mainly based on publications identified by searching PubMed, as well as abstracts and presentations at recent international congresses. RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION: Receptor tyrosine kinases are involved in cellular processes such as proliferation and angiogenesis, and signalling activities evoked by these enzymes are targets for pharmacological inhibition. The antibody bevacizumab inhibits angiogenesis. Randomized studies have shown that survival or time to progression of metastatic disease is improved when bevacizumab is combined with cytotoxic drugs (5-fluorouracil with or without irinotecan or oxaliplatin). The antibody cetuximab inhibits activation of a tumour cell growth factor receptor, and was approved for therapy on the basis of a large randomized phase 2 study. A wide array of small-molecular inhibitors of signalling by receptor tyrosine kinases are under clinical investigation, but their therapeutic contribution in metastatic colorectal cancer needs to be clarified. According to Nordic recommendations on the use of molecular targeted agents in combination with chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer, bevacizumab should be considered in the first-line treatment of patients with a good performance status and cetuximab in third-line treatment.