The article generalizes experience with the surgical treatment of 1988 patients with different diseases of the thyroid gland. Indications for the surgical treatment, special preoperative management, choosing the anesthesia, methods and technique of the operation are discussed.
Although animal studies have indicated that general anesthetics may result in widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration and neurocognitive impairment in the developing brain, results from human studies are scarce. We investigated the association between exposure to surgery and anesthesia for inguinal hernia repair in infancy and subsequent academic performance.
Using Danish birth cohorts from 1986-1990, we compared the academic performance of all children who had undergone inguinal hernia repair in infancy to a randomly selected, age-matched 5% population sample. Primary analysis compared average test scores at ninth grade adjusting for sex, birth weight, and paternal and maternal age and education. Secondary analysis compared the proportions of children not attaining test scores between the two groups.
From 1986-1990 in Denmark, 2,689 children underwent inguinal hernia repair in infancy. A randomly selected, age-matched 5% population sample consists of 14,575 individuals. Although the exposure group performed worse than the control group (average score 0.26 lower; 95% CI, 0.21-0.31), after adjusting for known confounders, no statistically significant difference (-0.04; 95% CI, -0.09 to 0.01) between the exposure and control groups could be demonstrated. However, the odds ratio for test score nonattainment associated with inguinal hernia repair was 1.18 (95% CI, 1.04-1.35). Excluding from analyses children with other congenital malformations, the difference in mean test scores remained nearly unchanged (0.05; 95% CI, 0.00-0.11). In addition, the increased proportion of test score nonattainment within the exposure group was attenuated (odds ratio = 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.31).
In the ethnically and socioeconomically homogeneous Danish population, we found no evidence that a single, relatively brief anesthetic exposure in connection with hernia repair in infancy reduced academic performance at age 15 or 16 yr after adjusting for known confounding factors. However, the higher test score nonattainment rate among the hernia group could suggest that a subgroup of these children are developmentally disadvantaged compared with the background population.
Malignant hyperthermia, a life-threatening complication of anaesthesia, occurred in a 5 1/2-year-old girl undergoing dental surgery in a dental clinic. During induction, after 20 mg of succinylcholine, the anaesthetist noted a moderate rigidity of the mandible that did not interfere with the tracheal intubation. However, after 45 minutes, the temperature rose to 38.8 degrees C, pulse was rapid at 160 per minute and the child was slightly cyanosed. The diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia was made (the temperature eventually reached 40.8 degrees C). The child was immediately treated with refrigeration, procainamide and sodium bicarbonate. She was then moved to a hospital centre where the treatment was continued and she recovered completely. After extensive investigation, we found that the paternal grandfather of the child died at age 58, several hours after a bilateral lumbar sympathectomy under general anaesthesia. The cause of the death, as confirmed by hospital records, was malignant hyperthermia. No genetic counselling was given at that time; this omission has since been corrected. Early diagnosis and the availability on the premises of the necessary drugs and equipment to treat such a complication probably saved this child's life. In 1975, "La Corporation Professionnelle des Médecins du Québec" published standards for practice of anaesthesia outside a hospital setting. The compliance of the dental clinic with such standards has contributed to the avoidance of a catastrophe.
The purpose of this study was to determine the onset times of vecuronium neuromuscular block administered into either the central circulation or a peripheral vein. One hundred and twenty adult patients with a pulmonary artery (PA) catheter were randomly divided into one of three groups with respect to the routes of vecuronium administration (n = 40 in each group). Anaesthesia was induced with midazolam 2.5 mg iv and fentanyl 10-50 micrograms.kg-1 iv and maintained with intermittent doses of fentanyl 50 micrograms iv and nitrous oxide 60-70% in oxygen. After immobilization of the forearm in a splint, the ulnar nerve was stimulated supramaximally every 12 sec. The resulting force of the evoked thumb twitch was recorded (Myograph 2000, Biometer, Denmark). The times from the injection to the first depression of twitch response (latent onset) in patients given vecuronium 0.08 mg.kg-1 into the pulmonary artery, the right atrium, and a peripheral vein on the hand were 58.0 +/- 19.5, 71.5 +/- 17.1, and 82.4 +/- 18.0 sec (mean +/- SD), respectively. The latent onset of neuromuscular block occurred sooner in patients given vecuronium into the central vein than when administered into a vein on the hand (P
The aim of the study was to evaluate the acceptability of CO2 laser excisional conization for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia under local anaesthesia in an outpatient setting. Seventy-seven patients, who underwent this procedure, were interviewed three months later concerning pain during treatment, pain and bleeding in the immediate postoperative period, and their general opinion about this procedure. The median duration of surgery was 11 minutes. The postoperative median observation time was 90 minutes. Seventy-one women experienced no discomfort during treatment. Thirty-one patients needed mild analgesics for an average of three days. Bleeding continued for a mean of 7.7 days after treatment and 73% experienced the bleeding as less, 8% as more as compared to menstrual bleeding. Ninety-two percent of the women would prefer this procedure if they had to undergo conization once again. In conclusion, we found a high acceptability in women treated with CO2 laser excisional conization under local anaesthesia in an outpatient setting.
Background: Hip fractures affect 1.6 million patients yearly worldwide, often elderly with complex comorbidity. Mortality following surgery for acute hip fracture is high and multifactorial; high age, comorbidities and complication/deterioration in health following surgery. Whether the anaesthesia technique affects the 30-day mortality rate has been studied widely without reaching a consensus. The primary aim of this study was to determine anaesthetic techniques used in Sweden and their impact on the 30-day mortality rate in elderly undergoing acute hip fracture surgery. Other aims were to study the impact of age, gender, ASA class, fracture type and delay in surgery on the 30-day mortality rate. Methods: Data from 13,649 patients =50 years old who had undergone acute hip fracture surgery and been reported to Swedish perioperative register (SPOR) between 2016 and 2017 were analysed. Results: The most commonly used anaesthetic technique was neuraxial anaesthesia (NA; 11,257, 82%), followed by general anaesthesia (GA; 2,190, 16%) and combined general and neuraxial anaesthesia (CA; 202, 1.5%) out of the 13,649 studied. The 30-day mortality rate was 7.7% for the entire cohort; GA 7.8%, NA 7.7% and CA 7.4%. Mortality was higher in elderly patients, those with a high ASA class, pertrochanteric fracture and males. Conclusions: The present study showed that NA is by far the most common anaesthetic technique for acute hip fracture surgery in Sweden. However, the anaesthetic technique used during this type of surgery had no impact on the 30-day mortality rate in patients. Increasing age, ASA class and male gender increased the 30-day mortality.
Differences in ethnic beliefs about the perceived need for local anesthesia for tooth drilling and childbirth labor were surveyed among Anglo-Americans, Mandarin Chinese, and Scandinavians (89 dentists and 251 patients) matched for age, gender, and occupation. Subjects matched survey questionnaire items selected from previously reported interview results to estimate (a) their beliefs about the possible use of anesthetic for tooth drilling and labor pain compared with other possible remedies and (b) the choice of pain descriptors associated with the use of nonuse of anesthetic, including descriptions of injection pain. Multidimensional scaling, Gamma, and Chi-square statistics as well as odds ratios and Spearman's correlations were employed in the analysis. Seventy-seven percent of American informants reported the use of anesthetics as possible remedies for drilling and 51% reported the use of anesthetics for labor pain compared with 34% that reported the use of anesthetics among Chinese for drilling and 5% for labor pain and 70% among Scandinavians for drilling and 35% for labor pain. Most Americans and Swedes described tooth-drilling sensations as sharp, most Chinese used descriptors such as sharp and "sourish" (suan), and most Danes used words like shooting (jagende). By rank, Americans described labor pain as cramping, sharp, and excruciating, Chinese used words like sharp, intermittent, and horrible, Danes used words like shooting, tiring, and sharp, and Swedes used words like tiring, "good," yet horrible. Preferred pain descriptors for drilling, birth, and injection pains varied significantly by ethnicity. Results corroborated conclusions of a qualitative study about pain beliefs in relation to perceived needs for anesthetic in tooth drilling. Samples used to obtain the results were estimated to approach qualitative representativity for these urban ethnic groups.