In this study, a fully automated texture-based segmentation and recognition system for lesion and lungs from CT of thorax is presented. For the segmentation part, we have extracted texture features by Gabor filtering the images, and, then combined these features to segment the target volume by using Fuzzy C Means (FCM) clustering. Since clustering is sensitive to initialization of cluster prototypes, optimal initialization of the cluster prototypes was done by using a Genetic Algorithm. For the recognition stage, we have used cortex like mechanism for extracting statistical features in addition to shape-based features. The segmented regions showed a high degree of imbalance between positive and negative samples, so we employed over and under sampling for balancing the data. Finally, the balanced and normalized data was subjected to Support Vector Machine (SimpleSVM) for training and testing. Results reveal an accuracy of delineation to be 94.06%, 94.32% and 89.04% for left lung, right lung and lesion, respectively. Average sensitivity of the SVM classifier was seen to be 89.48%.
Subjects with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk of vascular complications. The use of carotid ultrasound remains an attractive, non-invasive method to monitor atherosclerotic disease progression and/or response to treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes, with intima-media thickness routinely used as the gold standard to detect pathology. However, alternative measurements, such as plaque area or volume, may represent a potentially more powerful approach. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the traditional intima-media thickness measurement against the novel total plaque volume measurement in analyzing carotid atherosclerosis development in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
The case-control study included 49 Oji-Cree adults with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, aged 21-69, and 49 sex- and age-matched normoglycemic subjects. At baseline, metabolic variables were measured, including body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol: high density lipoprotein ratio, plasma triglycerides, plasma glucose, and serum insulin. Carotid ultrasound measurements, 7 years later, assessed carotid arterial intima-media thickness and total plaque volume.
At baseline, the two groups were well matched for smoking habits, hypertension, body mass index, and waist circumference. Differences were noted in baseline measurements of total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein (P = 0.0006), plasma triglycerides (P 0.70 when comparing intima-media thickness measurements for diabetics versus non-diabetics, thousands of study subjects are required. For comparing total plaque volume measurements, only hundreds of study subjects are required.
The development of atherosclerotic plaque is greater in subjects with diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance. Total plaque volume appears to capture the atherosclerotic disease burden more effectively in subjects with type 2 diabetes, and would be an appropriate outcome measure for studies aimed at changing the diabetic milieu.
A small cross sectional area (CSA) of the paraspinal muscles may be related to low back pain among military aviators but previous studies have mainly concentrated on spinal disc degeneration. Therefore, the primary aim of the study was to investigate the changes in muscle CSA and composition of the psoas and paraspinal muscles during a 5-year follow up among Finnish Air Force (FINAF) fighter pilots.
Study population consisted of 26 volunteered FINAF male fighter pilots (age: 20.6 (±0.6) at the baseline). The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were collected at baseline and after 5?years of follow-up. CSA and composition of the paraspinal and psoas muscles were obtained at the levels of 3-4 and 4-5 lumbar spine. Maximal isometric strength tests were only performed on one occasion at baseline.
The follow-up comparisons indicated that the mean CSA of the paraspinal muscles increased (p
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to ascertain whether there are gender-related differences in the morphological characteristics of the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles in young adult and old Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 rats. METHODS: We tested 1) whether there was a gender-related difference between the fiber type composition of these muscles, and 2) whether the cross-sectional area of individual muscle fibers demonstrated gender-associated differences, fibers from males being larger than fibers from females. RESULTS: Gender differences were not found in the fiber type composition of the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles, but were present in the single skeletal fiber cross-sectional area of the tibialis anterior muscle. The cross-sectional area of type I fibers in females was greater than that in males at both 12 (16%) and 30 (5%) months of age. In contrast, the cross-sectional area of type Ila fibers of 12-month-old males was larger than that of 12-month-old females. No significant differences between genders were found for the cross-sectional area of type Ilb fibers in either age group. In the soleus muscle, 30-month-old males had larger single fiber cross-sectional areas of both fiber types I and lIa. At 12 months of age, type I fibers from females were larger than those from males. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that gender-related differences exist in the size of individual skeletal fibers from the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles and that they may influence metabolism and the adaptive response to rehabilitation programs.
Two cases of neonatal respiratory distress responded with treatment of bilateral dacryocele. In one case, no visible or palpable external evidence of dacryocele was present until mucopurulent discharge commenced more than a week after birth. While the incidence of typical congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction is about 6%, dacryocele is 200 times less common.
The object was to study the relationships between calf muscle size and strength in 85 patients an average of 3.1 years after repair of achilles tendon rupture. The isokinetic calf muscle strength results were excellent or good for 73% of the patients, whereas calf muscle size was normal in only 30%. The average plantar flexion peak torque per unit muscle cross-sectional area was higher on the injured side than on the uninjured side. The average calf muscle cross-sectional area deficit was 15+/-9% (p
Rabbit bones are brittle and prone to fissure formation. Radiographs of very young and old rabbits are often indicative of decreased bone density. The aim of this study was to investigate the tibial bone parameters in pet rabbits, and their association with age, sex, castration and dental disease. Eighty-seven (43 female/5 spayed, 44 male/19 castrated) pet rabbits (mean age 2.6 years, range 0.3-9.3 years) of various breeds were studied, of which 37 had dental disease. Right tibiae were scanned with peripheral quantitative CT at the distal (4percent) and mid-shaft sites (50percent of the tibial length). Analysed bone parameters included the total cross-sectional area, cortical bone area and density, trabecular bone density and strength-strain index. The mean diaphyseal cortical density was high (about 1400?mg/cm3) in comparison to many other species. Within the studied age range, age was weakly but positively associated with diaphyseal cortical density, with the juvenile rabbits clearly showing the lowest values. There was no tendency for age-related decrease in trabecular or cortical bone density at least up to six years of age. Neither were sex, castration nor dental disease associated with decreased tibial bone density.