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3478 records – page 1 of 348.

Persistence during extinction: are judgments of persistence affected by contingency information?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196276
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2000 Dec;41(4):315-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2000
Author
F. Svartdal
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Tromsø, Norway. frodes@psyk.uit.no
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2000 Dec;41(4):315-28
Date
Dec-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Extinction, Psychological
Humans
Judgment
Norway
Reward
Abstract
The partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE), defined as increased behavioral persistence following intermittent reward, is considered an important outcome of instrumental learning contingencies, both inside and outside the laboratory. Since adults have a rich experience with situations in which desired outcomes depend on instrumental responding, we asked whether that experience affects judgments of persistence when relevant contingency information is manipulated. Subjects read simple scenarios with information about behaviors generated by high vs. low reward rate, and then judged the resultant persistence of these behaviors under no-reward conditions. Studies 1 and 2 found no evidence that persistence judgments were affected by contingency information in naive subjects. Studies 3 and 4 compared groups with and without explicit knowledge about behavioral psychology and thus tested possible effects of that knowledge for persistence more directly. Judgments in naive subjects were not reliably influenced by reward rate information, but subjects possessing expert knowledge demonstrated judgments that were reliably affected by contingency information. The results indicate that people do not generate generalized knowledge from normal experience with occasional vs. regular reward. Possible explanations and implications of these findings are discussed.
PubMed ID
11131953 View in PubMed
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Source
Can J Occup Ther. 1983 Oct;50(4):133-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1983
Author
B W Posthuma
Source
Can J Occup Ther. 1983 Oct;50(4):133-5
Date
Oct-1983
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Canada
Humans
Male
Men
Occupational Therapy - manpower
PubMed ID
10263681 View in PubMed
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The role of derivational morphology in vocabulary acquisition: get by with a little help from my morpheme friends.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196278
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2000 Dec;41(4):287-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2000
Author
R. Bertram
M. Laine
M M Virkkala
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland. rayber@utu.fi
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2000 Dec;41(4):287-96
Date
Dec-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Child
Finland
Humans
Language Development
Linguistics
Vocabulary
Abstract
This study explores the role of morphology in vocabulary knowledge of 3rd and 6th grade Finnish elementary school children. In a word definition task, children from both grades performed overall better on derived words than on monomorphemic words. However, the results were modified by the factors Frequency and Productivity. Most strikingly, performance on monomorphemic words was disproportionately weaker than on derived words at the low frequency range. At the high-frequency range, derived words with low-productive suffixes yielded poorest performance. We partly make an appeal to the lexical-statistical properties of the Finnish language to explain the interaction of Frequency and Word Structure. At any rate, the results suggest that Finnish elementary school children benefit significantly from utilizing morphology in determining word meanings.
PubMed ID
11131950 View in PubMed
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Geographical distribution of some Danish surnames: reflections of social and natural selection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222987
Source
J Biosoc Sci. 1992 Oct;24(4):505-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1992
Author
J L Boldsen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Community Health, University of Odense, Denmark.
Source
J Biosoc Sci. 1992 Oct;24(4):505-13
Date
Oct-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Cluster analysis
Denmark
Humans
Male
Names
Sociology
Abstract
Geographical differences in the frequencies of eight common surnames in Jutland (Denmark) are analysed using data from telephone directories of 121 exchanges. All the names showed a significant geographical surplus variance, which was divided into trend and patchiness components reflecting the history of the names. The surplus variance of surnames with restricted areas of origin was dominated by a large trend component; for surnames with an originally more even distribution, the patchiness component was dominant. The patterns of distribution were affected by processes which modelled natural selection with linkage disequilibrium. The combined patchiness within the clusters of exchanges gave information about patterns of local migration and level of social integration in the communities. Areas situated in boundary regions show high levels of patchiness.
PubMed ID
1429778 View in PubMed
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The influence of attention at encoding on direct and indirect remembering.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205432
Source
Acta Psychol (Amst). 1998 Apr;98(2-3):291-310
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1998
Author
P A MacDonald
C M MacLeod
Author Affiliation
Division of Life Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Ont., Canada.
Source
Acta Psychol (Amst). 1998 Apr;98(2-3):291-310
Date
Apr-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Attention
Cognition
Cues
Humans
Memory
Ontario
Reading
Abstract
The relation between attention at encoding and direct (i.e., recognition) versus indirect (i.e., rapid reading) remembering was investigated. In Experiments 1 and 2, color of print indicated whether to read an individual word aloud or to ignore it. This attentional manipulation reduced direct but not indirect remembering for the ignored words relative to the attended words. Apparently direct remembering is extremely dependent on attention at encoding. In Experiment 3, however, presenting two words simultaneously at study, with color now signifying which word to read and which to ignore, eliminated this dissociative effect of attention. Ignored words were not remembered on either test, although attended words were remembered well on both. Mere exposure is not sufficient to produce indirect remembering: Stimuli must be attended. Ignoring one stimulus in favor of processing another stimulus that is simultaneously presented and equally salient may prevent even the minimal attentional requirements of indirect remembering from being met, let alone the more stringent requirements of direct remembering.
PubMed ID
9621835 View in PubMed
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Familial resemblance for immunoglobulin levels.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217589
Source
Hum Genet. 1994 Aug;94(2):179-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1994
Author
I B Borecki
M. McGue
J W Gerrard
M D Lebowitz
D C Rao
Author Affiliation
Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110.
Source
Hum Genet. 1994 Aug;94(2):179-85
Date
Aug-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Humans
Immunoglobulins - genetics
Normal Distribution
Phenotype
Saskatchewan
Abstract
The familial resemblance for immunoglobulin A, D, E, G, and M levels was investigated with family data collected in Canada and the U.S., entertaining both multifactorial and single gene hypotheses. Significant familial effects were found for each of the immunoglobulins, and there was significant support for a major gene hypothesis for IgA and IgD levels. Whereas there have been several reports suggesting a major gene determinant for IgE levels, including that from our own Canadian study, analysis of the U.S. sample suggested that a multifactorial component parsimoniously explained the observed familial resemblance.
PubMed ID
8045565 View in PubMed
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Cognitive performance and subjective experience during combined exposures to whole-body vibration and noise.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181768
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2004 Apr;77(3):217-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
Jessica Ljungberg
Gregory Neely
Ronnie Lundström
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Working Life, P.O. Box 7654, 907 13, Umeå, Sweden. Jessica.Ljungberg@arbetslivsinstitutet.se
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2004 Apr;77(3):217-21
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Cognition
Female
Humans
Male
Noise
Sweden
Vibration
Abstract
The goal of this study was to examine the effects of noise and whole-body vibration, individually and combined, and at various stimulus intensity levels, on cognitive performance and subjective experience.
Fifty-four participants (27 men and 27 women) with a mean age of 25 years, ranging from 19 to 30, were exposed for 20 min each to a 16-Hz sinusoidal whole-body vibration, a helicopter sound at 21 Hz, both stimuli combined, and a control condition. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: low intensity [77 dB(A) noise and 1.0 m/s2 vibration], medium intensity [81 dB(A)/1.6 m/s2] or high intensity [86 dB(A)/2.5 m/s2. During each environmental exposure, short-term memory performance was tested with a visual Sternberg paradigm. Reaction time was measured as a dependent variable. Directly following each environmental exposure, participants rated the difficulty of the task and the annoyance level of the exposure stimulus.
Results revealed no significant changes in reaction times due to environmental exposure or intensity level. However, participants significantly rated the combined exposure as both more annoying and more difficult than the other conditions. Further, the high-intensity group rated subjective annoyance significantly higher than the other groups for all conditions.
The results from this study indicate that performance alone is not a sufficient measure for the study of the effects of combined stimuli on a human operator.
PubMed ID
14749930 View in PubMed
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Inbreeding and kinship in Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean: a study of newborn samples 1956-1971.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature224209
Source
Ann Hum Biol. 1992 Mar-Apr;19(2):115-24
Publication Type
Article
Author
M. De Braekeleer
Author Affiliation
Department of Human Sciences, Université du Quebec à Chicoutimi.
Source
Ann Hum Biol. 1992 Mar-Apr;19(2):115-24
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Catholicism
Consanguinity
Demography
Humans
Quebec
Rural Population
Urban Population
Abstract
Samples of individuals born between 1956 and 1971 proportional to the population size of each parish of Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean (SLSJ) were extracted from a computerized population register. The mean inbreeding and kinship coefficients were calculated for each sample. Our results showed that inbreeding and kinship were unevenly distributed in the SLSJ region. The highest values of inbreeding and kinship were found in Bas-Saguenay, an isolated subregion of SLSJ, and in rural parishes. It was also found that the mean inbreeding and kinship coefficients had higher values in parishes that opened between 1872 and 1901 than those opened earlier or later.
PubMed ID
1580536 View in PubMed
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Conformity in a generative linguistic task: the role of category and strategic nonword use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169772
Source
Can J Exp Psychol. 2006 Mar;60(1):44-59
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2006
Author
Karen A Hussey
Albert N Katz
Author Affiliation
University of Western Ontario. kahussey@uwo.ca
Source
Can J Exp Psychol. 2006 Mar;60(1):44-59
Date
Mar-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Creativity
Cues
Humans
Imagination
Ontario
Psycholinguistics
Semantics
Set (Psychology)
Abstract
Marsh, Ward, and Landau (1999) demonstrated that participants asked to create novel words use elements of sample nonwords they are given, even when instructed to avoid use of the examples. In four studies, we replicated the effect of conformity to sample nonwords and found the effect was not influenced by the semantic category of the words unless those words shared orthographic characteristics. We found that although we could increase conformity to examples when word exemplars were grouped by category, it was likely that much of this increase was strategically driven. We propose that the presence of the sample non-words, presented in groups with the same word rules, created an orthographic category used by participants in the word creation task.
PubMed ID
16615717 View in PubMed
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Bayesian inference of inbreeding depression in controlled crosses.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45887
Source
Evolution Int J Org Evolution. 2003 Aug;57(8):1947-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2003
Author
Patrik Waldmann
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 900 14 Oulu, Finland. patrik.waldmann@rni.helsinki.fi
Source
Evolution Int J Org Evolution. 2003 Aug;57(8):1947-51
Date
Aug-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Angiosperms - genetics
Bayes Theorem
Crosses, Genetic
Inbreeding
Models, Genetic
Abstract
This study shows how a Gibbs sampling approach can be used for Bayesian inference of inbreeding depression. The method presented is mainly concerned with organisms that can be both selfed and outcrossed. Tests performed on simulated data with unequal variances and missing observations show that the method works well. Real data from the plant Scabiosa canescens is also analyzed.
PubMed ID
14503634 View in PubMed
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3478 records – page 1 of 348.