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Source
Lancet. 1996 Mar 2;347(9001):573-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2-1996
Author
I. Raiha
J. Kaprio
M. Koskenvuo
T. Rajala
L. Sourander
Author Affiliation
Department of Geriatrics, University of Turku, Finland.
Source
Lancet. 1996 Mar 2;347(9001):573-8
Date
Mar-2-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age of Onset
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - etiology - genetics
Cohort Studies
Dementia - etiology - genetics
Dementia, Vascular - etiology - genetics
Diseases in Twins
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Abstract
The genetics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are obscure. Although most cases are sporadic half the patients with sporadic AD have a positive family history. The mode of genetic transmission and the role of environmental factors are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of genetic factors to the pathogenesis of AD in a twin cohort.
The Finnish Twin Cohort consists of all Finnish same-sexed twin pairs born before 1958 with both co-twins alive in 1975. The total number of twin pairs is 13 888, of whom 4307 are monozygotic (MZ) and 9581 ar dizygotic (DZ). These data were linked with the Hospital Discharge Register from 1972 to 1991 to identify twins who had dementia or related disease as a discharge diagnosis. The linkage of the registries yielded a total of 285 twin individuals. The medical records of these twins and their co-twins were reviewed to confirm and classify dementia (AD, vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and other dementia). The incidence, concordance, and age at onset of AD were examined.
The incidence of AD was significantly higher in MZ than in DZ twin individuals, with and adjusted MZ/DZ incidence ratio of 1.8 (95% confidence intervals 1.2 to 2.7). In contrast, the incidence of vascular or mixed dementia did not differ between MZ and DZ individuals (MZ/DZ ratio 0.6 [0.3 to 1.2]) for vascular and 1.0 [0.5 to 2.1] for mixed dementia). The pairwise concordance for AD was 18.6% in MZ pairs and 4.7% in DZ pairs and the corresponding probandwise concordance rates were 31.3% and 9.3%. The pairwise concordance for vascular dementia was 18.2% in MZ pairs and 6.7% in DZ pairs with corresponding probandwise rates of 30.8% and 12.5%. The onset age of AD concordant MZ pairs was identical in two pairs and diverged by up to 15 years.
The higher incidence of AD in MZ individuals than in DZ individuals may provide a clue to the aetiology of AD. The higher concordance rate of MZ pairs confirms the contribution of the major genetic component while indicating the need to identify environmental triggers.
Notes
Comment In: Lancet. 1996 Apr 6;347(9006):975-68598792
Comment In: Lancet. 1996 Apr 6;347(9006):9768598793
PubMed ID
8596319 View in PubMed
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Source
Lancet. 1996 Apr 6;347(9006):976
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-6-1996
Author
K. Christensen
N V Holm
J W Vaupel
Source
Lancet. 1996 Apr 6;347(9006):976
Date
Apr-6-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alzheimer Disease - etiology - genetics - psychology
Cognition
Denmark
Diseases in Twins
Humans
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Notes
Comment On: Lancet. 1996 Mar 2;347(9001):573-88596319
PubMed ID
8598793 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Prog Clin Biol Res. 1989;317:217-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
1989
Author
N L Pedersen
M. Gatz
B. Winblad
C G Pearson
S. Berg
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Hygiene, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Prog Clin Biol Res. 1989;317:217-22
Date
1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alzheimer Disease - etiology - genetics
Cohort Studies
Diseases in Twins - etiology - genetics
Environment
Humans
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Sweden
PubMed ID
2602417 View in PubMed
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[Genetic factors are often found inl Alzheimer disease. An extensive twin study to clarify the heredity-environment relationship].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205288
Source
Lakartidningen. 1998 May 27;95(22):2585-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-27-1998
Author
N L Pedersen
S. Berg
B. Johansson
K. Johansson
M. Viitanen
B. Winblad
M. Gatz
Author Affiliation
Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska institutet.
Source
Lakartidningen. 1998 May 27;95(22):2585-8
Date
May-27-1998
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alzheimer Disease - etiology - genetics
Diseases in Twins - etiology - genetics
Environmental Exposure
Humans
Middle Aged
Sweden
Abstract
Genetic and environmental risk factors are central concerns in dementia research. Through twin studies one can study the relative importance of genetic and environmental risk factors. One such study, based on the Swedish Twin Registry, shows that genetic effects are of considerable importance for developing Alzheimer's disease, even late in life, but that environmental factors are also important. For vascular dementia, the results indicate that non-genetic factors are of primary importance.
PubMed ID
9640937 View in PubMed
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Obesity and Alzheimer disease: roles of diet and genetics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61577
Source
Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jan 12;164(1):109-10; author reply 110
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-12-2004
Author
William B Grant
Source
Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jan 12;164(1):109-10; author reply 110
Date
Jan-12-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alzheimer Disease - etiology - genetics
Diet
Humans
Obesity - complications
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Notes
Comment On: Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jul 14;163(13):1524-812860573
PubMed ID
14718338 View in PubMed
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