To examine the 1-month prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental, Fifth Edition (DSM-V), and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), and the overlap between these criteria, in a population sample of 75-year-olds. We also aimed to examine comorbidity between GAD and other psychiatric diagnoses, such as depression.
During 2005-2006, a comprehensive semistructured psychiatric interview was conducted by trained nurses in a representative population sample of 75-year-olds without dementia in Gothenburg, Sweden (N = 777; 299 men and 478 women). All psychiatric diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV. GAD was also diagnosed according to ICD-10 and DSM-V.
The 1-month prevalence of GAD was 4.1% (N = 32) according to DSM-IV, 4.5% (N = 35) according to DSM-V, and 3.7% (N = 29) according to ICD-10. Only 46.9% of those with DSM-IV GAD fulfilled ICD-10 criteria, and only 51.7% and 44.8% of those with ICD-10 GAD fulfilled DSM-IV/V criteria. Instead, 84.4% and 74.3% of those with DSM-IV/V GAD and 89.7% of those with ICD-10 GAD had depression. Also other psychiatric diagnoses were common in those with ICD-10 and DSM-IV GAD. Only a small minority with GAD, irrespective of criteria, had no other comorbid psychiatric disorder. ICD-10 GAD was related to an increased mortality rate.
While GAD was common in 75-year-olds, DSM-IV/V and ICD-10 captured different individuals. Current definitions of GAD may comprise two different expressions of the disease. There was greater congruence between GAD in either classification system and depression than between DSM-IV/V GAD and ICD-10 GAD, emphasizing the close link between these entities.
Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were used to compare age-related changes in adaptive functioning in institutionalized adults with and without Down syndrome. Cross-sectional analysis showed significant differences related to level of functioning but not to age or etiology of disability. Longitudinal analysis showed a pattern of decline in self-help and communication skills in several individuals with Down syndrome older than 40. The case of an adult with Down syndrome with confirmed Alzheimer pathology at postmortem was presented. Results were discussed in relation to aging and the likelihood of Alzheimer-like changes in individuals with Down syndrome.
A community survey and subsequent clinical assessment of 192 Cree aged 65 years and over registered in two Reserves in Northern Manitoba identified only one case of probable Alzheimer's disease among eight cases of dementia, giving a prevalence of 0.5% for Alzheimer's disease and 4.2% for all dementias. This contrasted with an age-adjusted prevalence of 3.5% for Alzheimer's disease and 4.2% for all dementias in an age-stratified sample of 241 English-speaking residents of Winnipeg. Although it was not so for all dementias, the difference between the groups for prevalence of Alzheimer's disease was highly significant (p
The goals of this study were to investigate the prevalence and initial symptoms of the late-onset schizophrenia (LOS: >40 years) and very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis (VLOSLP: >60 years) nosological groups proposed by the International Late-Onset Schizophrenia Group.
This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, chart review study.
The study was conducted at Centre Hospitalier Robert-Giffard (CHRG), Quebec City, Canada.
The medical records of inpatients from the CHRG who presented with psychotic symptoms were analyzed.
Positive and negative symptoms were scored using the SAPS and SANS. Groups' symptoms were compared using chi(2), Fisher's exact tests, t tests, and exact Mann-Whitney tests. An exact conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which clinical characteristics were the most predictive of the groups' classification.
Among the 1,767 unique, first-admission medical records reviewed, 23 (1.3%) inpatients developed their first psychotic symptoms at the age of 40-59 years old (LOS), and 13 (0.7%) at the age of 60 years and above (VLOSLP). LOS patients were more apathetic and presented more abnormal psychomotor activity than the VLOSLP. Persecutory delusions, auditory hallucinations, inappropriate social behavior, formal thought disorders and anhedonia were frequent in the two groups. A logistic regression model including psychomotor abnormalities was statistically relevant to predict the belonging to LOS group.
LOS and VLOSLP are rare. Abnormal psychomotor activity can properly differentiate VLOSLP and LOS. The nosological model proposed by the International Late-Onset Schizophrenia Group is at least partially supported by the present data.
We conducted a nationwide registry-based study of the quality of diagnostic evaluation for dementia in the secondary health care sector.
Two hundred patients were randomly selected from the patient population (4,682 patients) registered for the first time with a dementia diagnosis in the nationwide hospital registries during the last 6 months of 2003. Through medical record review, we evaluated the completeness of the work-up on which the dementia diagnosis was based, using evidence-based dementia guidelines as reference standards.
Satisfactory or acceptable completion of the basic dementia work-up was documented in 51.3% of the patients. Only 11.5% of those with unsatisfactory work-up were referred to follow-up investigations. Dementia syndrome was confirmed in 88.5% of the cases, but correct subtypes were diagnosed in only 35.1%.
The adherence to clinical guidelines concerning dementia work-up is inadequate in the secondary health care sector. Our findings call for improvement in the organization of clinical dementia care, for education of specialists and for changes in attitude towards making a diagnosis of dementia.
BACKGROUND: Studies in mixed-aged populations show differences between the predictors of a relapse and those of a long-term course of depression, supporting the hypothesis about similar differences among the aged. AIM: The aim was to identify the factors predicting or related to a relapse of depression among the Finnish elderly having recovered from depression during treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The population consisted of 70 depressed (DSM-III criteria) elderly (60 yr-) Finns having recovered from depression during treatment as determined 15 months after baseline. By the 4-year follow-up after the recovery, 20 patients had relapsed and 50 persons were non-depressed. RESULTS: The logistic regression model showed major depression and psychomotor retardation to be independent predictors. Relapses were not related to stressors in life or physical illnesses occurring during the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Major depressive elderly patients have a high risk for relapses without the occurrence of the stressors or physical illnesses. In clinical practice, major depressive elderly patients should be followed up in order to detect and treat potential relapses as early as possible. Cooperation between psychiatrists and general practitioners is needed in the follow-up. Theoretically, the results suggest the assumption of a biochemical aetiology of major depression.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), such as depression, apathy, agitation, and psychotic symptoms are common in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subgroups of NPS have been reported. Yet the relationship of NPS and their subgroups to different stages of cognitive impairment is unclear. Most previous studies are based on small sample sizes and show conflicting results. We sought to examine the frequency of NPS and their subgroups in MCI and different stages of dementia in AD.
This was a cross-sectional study using data from a Norwegian national registry of memory clinics. From a total sample of 4,571 patients, we included those with MCI or AD (MCI 817, mild AD 883, moderate-severe AD 441). To compare variables across groups ANOVA or ? 2-test was applied. We used factor analysis of Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q) items to identify subgroups of NPS.
The frequency of any NPS was 87.2% (AD 91.2%, MCI 79.5%; p
The study is a validation study of two psychogeriatric depression rating scales, The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD). The sensitivity and specificity, and the convergent and criterion validity of the two scales as well as the inter-rater reliability of the CSDD are reported. Two independent clinicians using the ICD-10 for depression and dementia, the Clinical Global Impression (CGI), the Hamilton Depression rating scale 17-items and the Mini-Mental-State Examination (MMSE), interviewed each patient or control subject. One hundred forty-five persons of 65 years or more of age were included, 73 were depressed only, 36 depressed and demented; 36 persons were control subjects, 11 of these were demented. The inter-rater reliabilities were high or very high equalling perfect correlation. There was very high convergent validity between the screening tools and the severity scales; the shorter versions of the GDS (15-, 10- or four-item version) had lower though still almost perfect correlations. The criterion validity in the total population showed the CSDD as the better scale with sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 97% with a cut-off value of > or =6. The GDS versions had sensitivities and specificities ranging from 82% to 90% and 75% to 94% respectively with cut-off values > or =9, 4, 3 and 1. The CSDD retained its validity and specificity as a screening tool for depression in a population of demented, while the GDS versions all diminished in validity. The GDS and the CSDD are both valid screening tools for depression in the elderly; however, the CSDD alone seems to be equally valid in populations of demented and non-demented.
Socioeconomic status (SES) has been identified as a possible risk factor for the development of dementia, with low SES shown to be associated with a higher prevalence of dementia, increased psychiatric comorbidity and worse baseline cognitive functioning. Few studies have actually looked at the impact of SES within a clinical population using multiple measures of SES and cognition.
Data on 217 patients seen in an Inner City Memory Disorders Clinic were analyzed with respect to demographic status, clinical status and SES. Correlations were then examined looking at the relationship of SES to clinical variables and neurocognitive status. Regression analysis was undertaken to examine the relative contribution of individual sociodemographic factors to a diagnosis of dementia.
In general, there was wide variation in the sample examined with respect to most measures of SES. Approximately one third (36%) of the sample had a diagnosis of dementia, the mean age was 66.1 years and the mean Mini-mental State Examination score was relatively high (25.4). There was a strong association between age, individual annual income range, education, medical comorbidity and a diagnosis of dementia, with increased age and medical comorbidity being the strongest predictors.
Increased age, low education, high medical comorbidity and low annual income are all associated with a diagnosis of dementia in an inner city setting. Age and medical comorbidity appear to be more strongly associated with a diagnosis of dementia than SES in an inner city setting.
The incidences of senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) and multi-infarction dementia (MID) were studied in a total Swedish population, the Lundby project. The study is prospective and covers a 25-year period. The incidence rates per year of contracting SDAT or MID and the probability in each 10-year age interval of contracting dementia in the elderly were calculated, as well as the cumulative risk up to a certain age. The lifetime risk of contracting SDAT was for men 25.5% and for women 31.9%. The corresponding figures for MID were 29.8 and 25.1%.