The article covers differential diagnostic features of pulmonary tuberculosis and pneumoconiosis in workers engaged into mullite refractories production. The authors suggest that the disease courses as a new form of lung disorder--mullitosis.
Biobeds originated in Sweden in response to the need for simple and effective methods to minimize environmental contamination from pesticide use, especially when filling spraying equipment, a typical point source of contamination. The biobed system has attracted attention in several countries, where work is being conducted to adapt it to local conditions and applications. As a consequence, the biobed system has been more or less modified and sometimes renamed, for example, as biomassbed in Italy, biofilter in Belgium, and Phytobac and biobac in France. The effectiveness and simplicity of the biobed also make it suitable for use in developing countries, and different adaptations of the biobed concept now exist in, for instance, Peru, Guatemala, and Ecuador. When the modification of the biobed includes an intention to use it for retention and degradation of pesticides in sprayer washings, the construction has to be adapted to, for example, lined biobeds to ensure that no pesticide leaching will occur. Replacement of some of the original materials in the Swedish biomixture (straw, peat, and soil) can also change the performance of the system, for instance, the amount, activity, and composition of the microbial community that develops. This review presents the state of the art of biobeds and similar systems in Sweden and worldwide and identifies future research needs. Factors affecting the efficiency of biobeds in terms of degradation and retention of pesticides are discussed, with particular emphasis on the microbial processes involved.
The study was undertaken at a play therapy unit in a Swedish hospital. The purpose was directed toward investigating what takes place during play therapy when children were given the opportunity to use expressive arts such as clay, paint, and/or textile, and the meaning children input into their art objects. The study describes an approach to working with hospitalized children when they visited the play therapy unit. During a three-year period, hospitalized children (n=22) participated in the study. The assumption was that given the opportunity to express themselves freely by using a variety of expressive arts, children will tell what they express in their art works. It might mirror their thoughts and feelings of being hospitalized. The result of the qualitative analyzes generated the themes fear, longing, and powerlessness. The results also showed that expressive arts were a medium for communication. Expressive arts should be used as a tool to help the child express her/himself when being hospitalized.
A small cohort of 194 men with low exposure to fibrous tremolite (mean 0.75 f/ml y) in the mining and milling of vermiculite in South Carolina experienced 51 deaths 15 years or more from first employment. The SMR (all causes) was 1.17 reflecting excess deaths from circulatory disease. There were four deaths from lung cancer and 3.31 expected (SMR 1.21, 95% CI 0.33-3.09). Three of the four deaths were in the lowest exposure category (less than 1 f/ml y); no death was attributed to mesothelioma or pneumoconiosis. These findings contrast with those in Montana where the vermiculite ore was heavily contaminated with fibrous tremolite. A radiographic survey of 86 current and recent South Carolina employees found four with small parenchymal opacities (greater than or equal to 1/0) and seven with pleural thickening. These proportions were not higher than in a non-exposed group and much lower than had been observed in Montana. Examination of sputum from 76 current employees showed that only two specimens contained typical ferruginous bodies, confirming low cumulative fibre exposure. Any possible adverse effects of work with vermiculite, minimally contaminated with fibrous or non-fibrous tremolite, were thus beyond the limits of detection in this workforce.