Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-H.C.C.) has been measured in 67 consective cases of fracture of the proximal femur. The values found in these patients were not different from values found in these patients were not different from those in control groups at the same time of the year. Plasma 25-H.C.C. was not correlated to plasma calcium or phosphorus, the Ca times P product, or the alkaline phosphatase. X-rays showed Looser zones in only 1 patient, in whom the lowest plasma 25-H.C.C. was found. Osteomalacia is not uncommon among elderly people in Denmark, but it is more likely to depend on a decline in the renal efficiency to convert 25-H.C.C. to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol than a low dietary intake of vitamin D.
The 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25-OHD) in maternal and cord blood of 192 mothers was determined at delivery from June to the end of November. Ninety-nine mothers had received a daily supplementation of 12.5 micrograms of vitamin D during pregnancy and this group had a significantly higher 25-OHD concentration both in maternal and in cord blood than in the corresponding non-supplemented group. A daily supplement of 2.5 micrograms of vitamin D was given to 63 of the mothers during lactation. Of these mothers 44 were still lactating after 6 months. The dietary vitamin D intake of 31 mothers was calculated. We found a significant correlation between the maternal serum 25-OHD concentration 16-18 weeks after delivery and the total vitamin D intake. The intake (5.5 micrograms/d, including supplementation) was lower than that recommended for lactating mothers which is 10 micrograms/d (Food and Nutrition Board, 1980).
OBJECTIVE: To determine vitamin D levels among children 6 to 23 months old receiving services from Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) programs in Alaska.Study design During 2001 and 2002, we recruited 133 children receiving services at seven WIC clinics, administered a risk factor questionnaire, and collected blood. RESULTS: Fifteen (11%) and 26 (20%) children, respectively, had vitamin D levels or =25 ng/mL. Among 41 still breast-feeding children, 14 (34%) took supplemental vitamins, and six (18%) were reported to have received vitamins every day. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Alaska. Breast-feeding in the absence of adequate vitamin D supplementation is the greatest risk factor.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and alkaline phosphatase levels of breast-fed infants and their mothers were studied by following 100 healthy term mother-infant pairs with different supplementation protocols of vitamin D. A pilot study in winter revealed that six of eight breast-fed infants without vitamin D supplementation had serum 25-OHD levels below the risk limit for rickets (5 ng/ml) at the age of 8 weeks. In the main study in winter groups, it was found that the 25-OHD levels were low (5.6 +/- 3.7 ng/ml) at the age of 8 weeks in the unsupplemented breast-fed infants, whose mothers were given vitamin D supplementation of 1,000 IU/day during lactation (group I), compared with the levels of those infants receiving either 400 (18.0 +/- 8.4 ng/ml, group II) or 1,000 IU (22.8 +/- 11.2 ng/ml, group III) vitamin D (group I vs. group II or III, p less than 0.001; group II vs. group III, NS). In group I 10 of 18 infants had serum 25-OHD levels less than 5 ng/ml compared with none of the infants in groups II and III. Yet the infants with 25-OHD levels less than 5 ng/ml showed no signs of clinical or biochemical rickets at the age of 8 or 20 weeks. In summer at delivery the maternal 25-OHD levels were good, but decreased thereafter. Also in summer groups, the infantile 25-OHD concentrations decreased; however, because the levels at delivery were high, they stayed in the normal range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Purinergic signaling plays an important role in inflammation and vascular integrity, but little is known about purinergic mechanisms during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in humans.
The objective of this study is to study markers of purinergic signaling in a cohort of patients with peripheral artery disease.
Plasma ATP and ADP levels and serum nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1/CD39) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 activities were measured in 226 patients with stable peripheral artery disease admitted for nonurgent invasive imaging and treatment. The major findings were that ATP, ADP, and CD73 values were higher in atherosclerotic patients than in controls without clinically evident peripheral artery disease (P
Lysosomal enzyme activity in the bile and blood serum was compared in mice with experimental intrahepatic cholestasis induced by alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate and Triton WR 1339. Triton WR 1339 increases the synthesis of cholesterol (fatty acid precursor) in liver cells. The development of intrahepatic cholestasis was confirmed by the increase in activities of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase in blood serum. Administration of Triton WR 1339 in a dose of 100 mg/100 g was followed by a 10-fold increase in beta-galactosidase activity (hepatocyte lysosomal enzyme) in the bile, but not in the serum of mice. beta-Galactosidase activity significantly increased in the bile, but decreased in the serum of mice after treatment with a-naphthyl isothiocyanate in a dose of 200 mg/kg. Our results indicate that intrahepatic cholestasis is manifested in increased secretion of lysosomal glycosidases into the bile. Bile components can aggravate damage to liver cells by affecting the processes of hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis.
The propeptides PICP and PINP are derived from the synthesis of type I collagen, a major matrix protein of bone and soft tissues. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate their value as indicators of the aggressivity of breast cancer. Serum PINP, PICP, and total alkaline phosphatase were determined from 89 breast cancer patients. Forty had major bone and/or soft tissue metastases with an aggressive disease course: the progressive disease (PD) group. Forty-nine had either none or minor bone and/or soft tissue metastases with a stable clinical course: the stable disease group (SD). The mean value of PINP in the PD group was 7.2 times higher than that in the SD group (276 +/- 79 microg/l versus 38 +/- 3 microg/l, respectively; P = 0.005), whereas PICP mean value was only 1.7 times higher in the PD group (174 +/- 20 microg/l versus 100 +/- 5 microg/l; P = 0.001). The ratio of PICP to PINP was 1.02 +/- 0.07 in the PD group and 3.07 +/- 0.18 in the SD group (P
Influencing of 28-days alimentary deprivation and intermittent hypoxia to 3 months Wistar male rats (n = 30) bone tissue physiological remodelling is studied. We investigated 3 groups of animals, I group was control, II--food limitation mode (-40% in relation to the normal ration) and III--animals, which breathed hypoxic gas mixture with 13% O2 in nitrogen (HGM) during 4 hours in the intermittent mode (10 min of deoxygenation and 10 min of reoxygenation). It is showed significant increasing of melatonin and glicozaminoglikans levels in the rats II and III gr. serum. Activity of alkaline phosphatase in the bone tissue of III gr. rats increased and in the bone tissue and serum of II gr. rats for 1.2 and 1.4 time accordingly. We registered significant increasing of serum acid phosphatase activity in animals, which have breathed hypoxic gas mixture. The IGF-I gene expression level did not change practically in both experimental groups. We conclude, that alimentary deprivation and intermittent hypoxia have positive effects on the physiological remodelling of bone tissue.