A lexicostatistical classification is proposed for 20 languages and dialects of the Lezgian group of the North Caucasian family, based on meticulously compiled 110-item wordlists, published as part of the Global Lexicostatistical Database project. The lexical data have been subsequently analyzed with the aid of the principal phylogenetic methods, both distance-based and character-based: Starling neighbor joining (StarlingNJ), Neighbor joining (NJ), Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Unweighted maximum parsimony (UMP). Cognation indexes within the input matrix were marked by two different algorithms: traditional etymological approach and phonetic similarity, i.e., the automatic method of consonant classes (Levenshtein distances). Due to certain reasons (first of all, high lexicographic quality of the wordlists and a consensus about the Lezgian phylogeny among Caucasologists), the Lezgian database is a perfect testing area for appraisal of phylogenetic methods. For the etymology-based input matrix, all the phylogenetic methods, with the possible exception of UMP, have yielded trees that are sufficiently compatible with each other to generate a consensus phylogenetic tree of the Lezgian lects. The obtained consensus tree agrees with the traditional expert classification as well as some of the previously proposed formal classifications of this linguistic group. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the UMP method has suggested the least plausible tree of all. In the case of the phonetic similarity-based input matrix, the distance-based methods (StarlingNJ, NJ, UPGMA) have produced the trees that are rather close to the consensus etymology-based tree and the traditional expert classification, whereas the character-based methods (Bayesian MCMC, UMP) have yielded less likely topologies.
Extensive monitoring data on waste generation is increasingly collected in order to implement cost-efficient and sustainable waste management operations. In addition, geospatial data from different registries of the society are opening for free usage. Novel data analytics approaches can be built on the top of the data to produce more detailed, and in-time waste generation information for the basis of waste management and collection. In this paper, a data-based approach based on the self-organizing map (SOM) and the k-means algorithm is developed for creating a set of waste generation type profiles. The approach is demonstrated using the extensive container-level waste weighting data collected in the metropolitan area of Helsinki, Finland. The results obtained highlight the potential of advanced data analytic approaches in producing more detailed waste generation information e.g. for the basis of tailored feedback services for waste producers and the planning and optimization of waste collection and recycling.
We sought to validate a case-finding algorithm for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection using administrative health databases in Ontario, Canada.
We constructed 48 case-finding algorithms using combinations of physician billing claims, hospital and emergency room separations and prescription drug claims. We determined the test characteristics of each algorithm over various time frames for identifying HIV infection, using data abstracted from the charts of 2,040 randomly selected patients receiving care at two medical practices in Toronto, Ontario as the reference standard.
With the exception of algorithms using only a single physician claim, the specificity of all algorithms exceeded 99%. An algorithm consisting of three physician claims over a three year period had a sensitivity and specificity of 96.2% (95% CI 95.2%-97.9%) and 99.6% (95% CI 99.1%-99.8%), respectively. Application of the algorithm to the province of Ontario identified 12,179 HIV-infected patients in care for the period spanning April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2009.
Case-finding algorithms generated from administrative data can accurately identify adults living with HIV. A relatively simple "3 claims in 3 years" definition can be used for assembling a population-based cohort and facilitating future research examining trends in health service use and outcomes among HIV-infected adults in Ontario.
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Herein is described the algorithm of an expert system intended for the individual choice of hearing aids, based on SM-4 computer. The audiometric data and hearing aids bank information allow to select for each patient the most preferable unit, regarded as suitable from the view of speech distinction. Moreover, with the help of this system it is possible to identify the most preferable way for manufacturing the audition prosthetic appliance (mono-or binaural) and to get recommendations for manufacturing prosthetic appliances for each ear individually; and for mono-aural prosthetic manufacturing--to identify the best version of the prosthesis for each ear individually. This system is most effective for the manufacture of audition prosthetic appliances for people with defective hearing.
Ultrasound practice in Alberta requires direct supervision by an ultrasound-accredited specialist physician (sonologist). This requirement limits access to ultrasound examinations in many rural communities. A prospective study was performed to evaluate the adequacy of teleultrasound service in High Level, Alberta, with remote sonologist supervision from Edmonton, Alberta.
A total of 146 patients were evaluated in two groups. Group A (72 patients) was evaluated by both an on-site radiologist in High Level and a remote supervising radiologist in Edmonton. Group B (74 patients) was evaluated only by the remote supervising radiologist in Edmonton. The teleultrasound service included digital store-and-forward capabilities using a commercially available teleradiology system, with videoconferencing review for real-time scanning.
The teleultrasound service was helpful to the referring physician. It made transfer unnecessary in 42% of patients, and the results of the ultrasound assessment influenced management in 59% of patients. The sonographer on site and the remote radiologists agreed on the quality of the images. The information required for diagnosis was available from the sonographer's study in the majority of cases, with second-look scanning by the on-site radiologist or videoconferencing by the remote radiologist providing a major new diagnosis in only 1% of patients.
Teleultrasound service to High Level could be provided reliably with remote supervision, comparable to direct on-site supervision.
The purpose of the research conducted was to develop a real-time surgical simulator for preoperative planning of surgery in congenital heart disease. The main problem simulating procedures on cardiac morphology is the need for a large degree of detail and simulation speed. In combination with a demand for physically realistic real-time behaviour this gives us tradeoffs not easily balanced. The LR-Spring Mass model handles these constraints by the use of domain specific knowledge.
The causes of development of ischemic heart failure (IHF) are various, its consequence is the non-adequate blood supply to the organs and tissues. A model of the functional respiratory system (FRS) is the most acceptable for the theoretical investigation of the hypoxical states of organism suffering from IHF. For remodeling and determining a degree of damage of coronary vessels, a four-chamber model of the heart was used with coronary vessels leading to each chamber.
A method of constructing a "tree of problem solving" is suggested to work out viable and economical strategies of clinical therapy of tumors. The algorithm is illustrated by solving a hypothetical problem. A clinico-economic index is used to compare different modalities of tumor therapy, its lowest value representing the best regimen.