The present study, which is part of a multipurpose study on alcohol use among women, focuses on the association between education, occupation, family structure and development of alcohol dependence or abuse in women. A total of 316 women were selected by stratified random sampling from all women in a defined part of Gothenburg, Sweden. In a face to face interview, questions were asked about occupation, education, family structure and other variables reflecting socioeconomic conditions and relations within the family. As outcome measures we used alcohol dependence and abuse (ADA), diagnosed in a clinical interview according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition-Revised (DSM-III-R). We found that never having been married, or having poor communication with the spouse, as well as having no children at home to take care of, were strongly associated with ADA in women. The role of social class depended on whether education or occupation was used as a measure. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis that development of alcohol-related problems among women to a large extent is influenced by matters that relate to home and private life.
To study the associations between drunkenness frequency and adaptive functioning, psychopathology and service use among 18-year-old Finnish boys in a nation-wide population-based study.
Information about drunkenness frequency within the previous six months was collected from the Finnish boys born in 1981 (n = 2306) at the boys' obligatory military call-up in 1999. Self-report questionnaires were used to study demographic factors, adaptive functioning, risk behaviour, life events, and mental health service use. Psychopathology and adaptive functioning was assessed with the Young Adult Self-Report (YASR) questionnaire.
Of the boys, 85% reported drunkenness within the previous 6 months. Most of the subjects were occasionally drunk: 39% reported drunkenness less than a month, and 35% less than once a week, while 10% reported being frequently drunk once a week or more often. Occasional drunkenness was associated with better adaptive functioning and psychosocial well-being in general. Refraining from drunkenness was associated with suicidal ideation and internalizing problems in the YASR scale. Frequent drunkenness associated with daily smoking, illicit drug use, and externalizing problems in the YASR scale, especially delinquent behaviour. In the multivariate analysis, number of friends, having a regular relationship and cigarette smoking had a linear association with frequency of drunkenness, while drunkenness-related alcohol use was less common among those with poor friendship quality. Among the participants, entering substance use treatment was rare (0.2%). Frequent drunkenness was found to be common among mental health service users.
Among late-adolescent boys, occasional drunkenness is a normative alcohol use pattern and associates with social competence and good psychosocial functioning. Late-adolescent boys refraining from drunkenness in addition to those with frequent drunkenness may be in a need of mental health assessment. As entering substance use treatment is infrequent, establishing integrated services with multi-professional co-operation for late-adolescent males with frequent drunkenness is emphasized.
Alcohol use has been shown to interfere with treatment for depression, but consumption habits are not routinely screened in primary care. To date, few studies have compared the alcohol consumption habits of patients with depression to the general population. The purpose of this study was to compare alcohol habits in adults diagnosed with depression in primary care to the general adult population in Sweden.
Nine hundred fourty six patients diagnosed with mild to moderate depression, without a primary substance use disorder, in primary care settings located across Sweden completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Consumptions habits and alcohol related problems in the depressed sample were compared to those in the general adult population (n?=?663). Analyses were stratified by gender and age.
Ratings of alcohol problems and measures of hazardous drinking and binge drinking were significantly higher among patients seeking treatment for depression in primary care compared to the general population. Male patients scored higher on the AUDIT total and AUDIT-C (consumption) subscale than men in the general population. Compared to younger adults (aged 17-27) older depressed adults (aged 28-50 and 51-71) exhibited higher rates of consumption and problems related to alcohol.
Compared to the general adult population, consumption and problems related to alcohol use were substantially higher among patients with mild to moderate depression in primary care. Routine screening of alcohol use in primary care is recommended for patients presenting with depression.
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The nexus between substance use and aggressive crime involves a complex interrelationship among mediating individual and community-level variables. Using multilevel logistic regression models, we investigate how community-level concentration of poverty variables mediate the predictive relationships among individual level social attachment variables and substance use on aggressive crime in a large national sample of male arrestees (N = 20,602) drawn from 24 U.S. urban areas. The findings support our hypothesis that individual social attachments to marriage and the labor force (education and employment) are the principal individual-level pathway mediating the substance abuse/aggression nexus. In the random intercept model, 3.17% of the variation not explained by the individual-level predictor variables is attributable to community-level variation in urban area female-headed households and households receiving welfare. This confirms our hypothesis that social structural conditions of an urban environment differentially expose persons to conditions that predict being arrested for an aggressive crime. Our findings tend to counter the cultural theorists who argue for an indigenous culture of violence in inner-city ghettos and barrios.
AIMS: To establish whether alcohol abuse as a risk factor in suicidal behaviour would be different in parasuicide compared to completed suicide, and to explore the relative impact of alcohol abuse on completed suicide among parasuicides. DESIGN: A 25-year follow-up study by linking data from military conscription, inpatient treatment and death register. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 46,490 Swedish male conscripts born in 1950-51. MEASUREMENTS: Psychiatric diagnosis was recorded at conscription, diagnoses related to alcohol abuse and suicidal behaviour were recorded at any inpatient treatment during follow-up, and underlying cause of death was recorded for those who died during follow-up. FINDINGS: Bivariate analyses showed alcohol abusers to have an elevated risk of attempted suicide (OR = 27.1) as well as completed suicide (OR = 4.7), but in the latter case to a significantly lesser extent. Correspondingly, alcohol abusers constituted a significantly larger proportion of the parasuicides (33.3%) than of the completed suicides (10.0%). A relatively stronger impact of alcohol abuse on parasuicide than on completed suicide remained after controlling for psychiatric co-morbidity, the adjusted odds ratios for attempted suicide and completed suicide being 8.8 and 2.4, respectively. Attempted suicide was a highly significant risk factor for completed suicide (OR = 13.5). Among those who attempted suicide, alcohol abusers were found to have a significantly lower risk of completed suicide than other suicide attempters (OR = 0.46). CONCLUSION: The significantly stronger association between alcohol abuse and attempted suicide compared to completed suicide may be viewed in the light of possible impact of intoxication and impulsiveness on non-fatal suicidal behaviour in alcohol abusers.
Three groups of subjects (N = 95) consisting or rapists, child molesters, and a comparison group of violent offenders were examined with reference to history of alcohol abuse, history of drug abuse, intimacy deficits, and emotionally based coping strategies. No differences were found between the two groups of sex offenders on any of the measures examined. Sex offenders were found to be significantly older than the comparison group. When age was entered as a covariate sex offenders were found to have significantly more difficulties with alcohol use as measured by the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) and were significantly more likely to use emotionally based coping strategies as measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). No differences were found between any of the groups with reference to drug abuse as measured by the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST). Results are discussed in terms of Marshall's theory of intimacy deficits in sexual offenders.
The primary aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate associations between chronic non-cancer pain with or without opioid treatment and the alcohol and smoking behavior. The secondary aims were to investigate self-reported quality of life, sleeping problems, oral health and the use of different health care providers. The Danish health survey of 2005 was based on a region-stratified random sample of 10.916 individuals. Data were collected via personal interviews and self-administrated questionnaires. Respondents suffering from chronic pain were identified through the question 'Do you have chronic/long-lasting pain lasting 6 months or more?' The question concerning alcohol intake assessed the frequency of alcohol intake and binge drinking. Smoking behavior assessed the daily number of cigarettes. Individuals reporting chronic pain were stratified into two groups (opioid users and non-opioid users). In all, 7275 individuals completed a personal interview and 5552 individuals completed and returned the self-administrated questionnaire. Responders with a self-reported earlier or present cancer diagnosis were excluded from the study. Hence, the final study population consisted of 5292 individuals. We found, that individuals suffering from chronic pain were less likely to drink alcohol. In opioid users alcohol consumption was further reduced. Cigarette smoking was significantly increased in individuals suffering from chronic pain and in opioid users smoking was further increased. Poor oral health, quality of life and sleep were markedly associated with chronic pain and opioid use. The use of opioids was associated with significantly more contacts to healthcare care providers.
A retrospective review of hospital records from the Alaska Native Medical Center, controlled for age, sex, and race, is presented for 33 Alaska Native suicide completers who died between 1980 and 1984. Suicide rates for Alaska Natives were twice the national average during the study period. The only significant differences between the suicide and control groups was the history of a prior suicide attempt (p 0.003). Alcohol abuse was diagnosed more often than any other psychiatric disorder in the suicide group and appears to be the most important antecedent of suicide in this study.
In 1916-17, prices of alcoholic beverages increased dramatically in Denmark, and alcohol consumption decreased strongly. On the basis of this 'natural experiment', the effect of variations in per capita alcohol consumption on suicide rates is estimated, and compared to NorstrÃ¶m's analysis of Danish data from the period 1931-80, as well as similar analyses from other countries. It is concluded that per capita alcohol consumption is probably related to the suicide rate in Denmark, but to a less extent than in some other countries.
This study of 689 secondary school students (13-16 years of age) in Sweden investigates the association between alcohol habits, the availability of alcohol and age, gender, socioeconomic status, ethnic origin and family structure. Data were obtained by anonymous questionnaires in 1991. The availability of alcohol increased from the seventh grade to the ninth as did the proportion of alcohol consumers and students with regular alcohol consumption. Boys in the seventh and eighth grades showed somewhat more advanced alcohol habits than girls, but in the ninth grade the opposite was seen. Students with more advanced alcohol habits and a higher availability of alcohol more often belonged to a lower socioeconomic strata and they lived more often with a single parent. Students of foreign background drank alcohol (especially wine) more regularly. An association was also found between the parents' liberal attitude toward offering alcohol at home and frequent intoxication and the students' experience of illicitly produced liquor, especially among the youngest students. In spite of the Swedish alcohol policy the availability of alcohol is rather high among young people. Special attention in alcohol preventive work should be paid to girls, young people living with one parent, young people in lower socioeconomic groups and young people of foreign origin.