Rates and correlates of alcohol use are reported from the 1993 General Social Survey, a household telephone survey of 10,385 Canadians carried out by Statistics Canada. Continuing a recent trend, alcohol use has declined. The portrait of the Canadian who is most likely to drink and drink heavily is that of a young adult male who is not married, relatively well-off, and rarely or never attends religious services. In a multivariate analysis of the combined impact of sociodemographic factors on drinking and drinking levels, it was found that the frequency of religious attendance and age were the strongest predictors of current drinking. Gender was the strongest predictor of volume of alcohol consumption, while religious attendance, age, marital status and employment status were also significant predictors.
To investigate whether abstainers fare worse than non-abstainers on the labour market because a subset of the abstainers are ex-drinkers with alcohol problems.
In the cross-sectional population survey 'health 2000 in Finland' (n = 10 000) carried out in 2000, alcohol dependency was measured using the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence. The CIDI (composite international diagnostic interview) was applied to ascertain lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses for substance abuse diagnoses, including alcohol dependence. Individuals were considered to be employed if they were working part-time or full-time.
Male abstainers have on average 9.5 percentage points lower employment probability than non-abstainers. However, abstainers who have never drunk alcohol do not have lower employment probability than non-abstainers. Abstainers who are diagnosed as alcohol dependent have 27 percentage points lower employment probability than non-abstainers.
The underperformance of abstainers in a labour market sense is almost entirely due to the fact that some abstainers are ex-drinkers who in our study are identified as alcohol-dependent. Otherwise abstaining does not decrease employment probability.
According to previous studies, abstinence from alcohol increases the risk of disability retirement (DR). We studied whether former alcohol users' poor mental or physical health might have contributed to this result.
Prospective population-based study of 3621 occupationally active Finns aged 30-55 years at baseline. Disability pension data for 2000-2011 was retrieved from national pension records. We examined medically certified disability retirement due to all causes and due to mental disorders among lifelong abstainers, former drinkers, those with an alcohol use disorder irrespective of consumption and current users, further classified according to weekly intake of alcohol. Chronic somatic diseases were evaluated in a clinical examination and common mental and alcohol use disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Cox regression was used.
Neither lifelong abstinence nor alcohol consumption, even at hazardous levels, without alcohol use disorder was associated with disability retirement. Compared with light drinkers, former drinkers' hazard ratio for DR due to mental disorders was 2.67 (95% CI 1.39-5.13), allowing for somatic and mental morbidity, physical and psychosocial workload, health behaviour and socio-demographic factors. The respective hazard ratio of DR due to all causes for those with alcohol use disorder was 2.17 (1.49-3.16) and of DR due to mental disorders 4.04 (2.02 to 8.06).
Lifelong abstinence did not predict disability retirement. Former drinkers and people with alcohol use disorders were at a multi-fold risk of work disability due to mental disorders compared with light drinkers, thus it is important to support their work ability.
Social reforms are often introduced solely on the basis of theoretical considerations without any empirical research. Thus, it is often an urgent matter to evaluate the real effects of a reform. In this investigation, the increased possibilities for abusers to obtain disability pensions that came into force in Sweden 1977-01-01 have been examined. A representative sample of 15 percent of all applications in the county of Ostergötland in 1975 has been compared with a corresponding one in 1978. As expected, the number of abusers of alcohol among the applicants increased. The proportion of male abusers rose from 13.5 in 1975 to 22 percent in 1978. Despite a levelling off of differences in the civil status in 1978, the abusers were still in a substantially weaker social position than the other applicants. In contrast to the other applicants, no traces of increased efforts towards vocational rehabilitation can be noted among the abusers in 1978. This is quite remarkable since, according to the preceding official report, liberalization was not meant to replace meaningful efforts of rehabilitation. In 1978, the whole group of applicants were younger and they lived more frequently in large, densely populated areas. Furthermore, the number of women increased so that they were in a majority among the applicants in 1978. These changes probably reflect structural changes in society, especially in the labour market. This is the final report of an independent study in the research project "Abuse of alcohol - Disability pension - Quality of life".
The present study, which is part of a multipurpose study on alcohol use among women, focuses on the association between education, occupation, family structure and development of alcohol dependence or abuse in women. A total of 316 women were selected by stratified random sampling from all women in a defined part of Gothenburg, Sweden. In a face to face interview, questions were asked about occupation, education, family structure and other variables reflecting socioeconomic conditions and relations within the family. As outcome measures we used alcohol dependence and abuse (ADA), diagnosed in a clinical interview according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition-Revised (DSM-III-R). We found that never having been married, or having poor communication with the spouse, as well as having no children at home to take care of, were strongly associated with ADA in women. The role of social class depended on whether education or occupation was used as a measure. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis that development of alcohol-related problems among women to a large extent is influenced by matters that relate to home and private life.
BACKGROUND: Seasonal variation in suicides has been shown in many countries. We assessed the seasonality and the variation with latitude in suicides and homicides, and the impact of alcohol on the seasonality in suicides. METHODS: Official computerized registers on causes of death in all Greenland during 1968-2002 were used. Sales data on beer from one of the major food store chains for July 2005-June 2006 were examined. Seasonal variation was assessed by Rayleigh's test for circular distributions. RESULTS: There were a total of 1351 suicides and 308 homicides. The suicides rate varied from 4.2/100 000 person-years in 1971 to 128.4/100 000 person-years in 1987. The homicide rate varied from 2.1/100000 person-years in 1969-1970 to 34.8/100 000 person-years in 1988. Out of the 1351 suicides, 80.5% were committed by men and 19.5% by women. Median age was 25 years (n = 1351; Range 11-84 years). Violent methods of suicide were used in 95% of all cases (n = 1286). Out of the 308 homicide victims, 61% were men and 39% were women, and 13% were killed in multiple homicide events.There was a significant seasonal variation with peaks in June and troughs in the winter in all suicide cases (n = 1351, r = 0.07; Z = 7.58, p
The phenomenon of acculturation stress is described with particular reference to the subsequent development of the transitional role conflict. The adolescent and young adult male Eskimo is especially susceptible to the anxiety generated by the process of acculturation and it is the interaction of this external stress with the bio-psychosocial characteristics of the individual within his ecological group, that may lead to an increased incidence of mental disorder. The clinical picture that develops will depend on the complex interaction of this psychosocial stressor and the level of ego development and its accompanying defence and coping strategies. We see how the development of manifest psychopathology in two young Inuit males was intimately associated with the stresses of acculturation acting upon personalities characterized by a low self-esteem and negative self-image, feelings of emasculation and a state of anomie. Coping and defensive strategies exhibited both similarities (drugs, alcohol, withdrawal, actin out) and differences (psychosis versus dissociation). The value of modified supportive therapy with continuity of care aimed at increasing self-esteem through sublimation, identification, reduction of dependency and encouragement of growth and autonomy is described, as are measures aimed at primary prevention.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2319.
Anthropogenic acute chemical exposures have become an important socioeconomic and environmental factor on the national, regional and global level. They present an actual or potential danger to vital activity and health of large population groups and normal operation of the Biosphere and natural components. Hence a problem of prevention and elimination of acute technogenic exposures hazardous for human health has expanded beyond the medical competence and grown to a major environmental issue.