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Abuse of alcohol in sudden out-of-hospital deaths in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218488
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1994 Apr;18(2):255-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1994
Author
M. Perola
E. Vuori
A. Penttilä
Author Affiliation
Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1994 Apr;18(2):255-60
Date
Apr-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - mortality
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcoholism - complications - mortality
Cause of Death
Death Certificates
Death, Sudden - epidemiology - etiology
Death, Sudden, Cardiac - epidemiology - etiology
Ethanol - pharmacokinetics
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Homicide - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Liver Diseases, Alcoholic - complications - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Suicide - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Alcoholism is known to be greatly underdiagnosed in death certificates, a fact that biases in estimates of alcohol-related mortality. An autopsy series of 1658 cases (920 with natural cause of death and 738 nonnatural) was reviewed to evaluate the extent of this bias, and also to see how well different sources of information served as indicators of alcoholism when alcohol-related disease diagnosed at autopsy was considered as a gold standard. A stepwise logistic regression model adjusted by age and sex showed police reports of individual's alcohol usage and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of > 2.9/1000 at autopsy to be the two most significant predictors of chronic alcohol abuse (p 2.9/1000), due to its high specificity, as particularly suggestive of chronic heavy drinking. However, it is wise to use these parameters only as an aid in decision-making, not as sole indicators of alcoholism. Deaths associated with chronic heavy drinking were frequent, 50.5% of the total series (male 56.4%, female 37.1%). For all but one age-group (male 45-64 years), however, death certificates mentioned alcohol-related diseases in less than half of these cases. Especially evident underdiagnosis was found for female and males 65 years and older. These results indicate that alcoholism is frequent in such a highly selected population as a series of forensic autopsies and suggest that estimates of prevalence of alcoholism based only on review of death certificates are to be considered with great caution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
8048723 View in PubMed
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Alcohol availability, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related damage. II. The role of sociodemographic factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature237658
Source
J Stud Alcohol. 1986 Jan;47(1):11-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1986
Author
L. Gliksman
B R Rush
Source
J Stud Alcohol. 1986 Jan;47(1):11-8
Date
Jan-1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alcohol Drinking
Alcoholic Beverages - supply & distribution
Alcoholism - complications - mortality - prevention & control
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Ontario
Risk
Socioeconomic Factors
Software
Urban Population
Abstract
Based on the encouraging findings in part I of our study, and on the relevant research literature, several sociodemographic factors were added to the causal sequence proposed by the distribution of consumption model and corroborated by a statistical technique known as the analysis of linear structural relations (LISREL). The sociodemographic factors were added in two alternative fashions. Although neither approach proved to be significantly superior, the basic causal sequence identified in part I was maintained, and the sociodemographic factors were found to be intimately involved in the process that leads to alcohol-related morbidity and alcohol-related mortality in the general population. The findings are discussed with reference to their implications for prevention via public policy.
PubMed ID
3754295 View in PubMed
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Alcohol availability, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related damage. I. The distribution of consumption model.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature237829
Source
J Stud Alcohol. 1986 Jan;47(1):1-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1986
Author
B R Rush
L. Gliksman
R. Brook
Source
J Stud Alcohol. 1986 Jan;47(1):1-10
Date
Jan-1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alcohol Drinking
Alcoholic Beverages - supply & distribution
Alcoholism - complications - mortality - prevention & control
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Liver Diseases, Alcoholic - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Ontario
Psychoses, Alcoholic - mortality
Risk
Software
Abstract
One of the major approaches to alcoholism prevention is referred to as the distribution of consumption model. This prevention model can be summarized as a causal model whereby the availability of alcoholic beverages has a direct causal effect on the aggregate level of alcohol consumption in the population and, in turn, an indirect effect on the incidence and prevalence of alcohol-related damage. This article summarizes an application of a statistical technique known as the analysis of linear structural relations (LISREL) to a set of Ontario data concerning alcohol availability, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related damage. Results substantiated the existence of specific causal paths consistent with the model. Several procedures for assessing the overall goodness-of-fit of the model suggested that it adequately fit the data. The results provide reasonable statistical evidence that government policies restricting the retail availability of alcoholic beverages will reduce the per capita rates of alcohol consumption and, in turn, reduce the level of alcohol-related mortality and morbidity in the general population.
PubMed ID
3485738 View in PubMed
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[Alcohol consumption and its adverse effects are increasing].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181572
Source
Duodecim. 2003;119(24):2481-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Pia Mäkelä
Author Affiliation
Stakes, alkoholi-ja huumetutkimus PL 220, 00531 Helsinki. pia.makela@stakes.fi
Source
Duodecim. 2003;119(24):2481-7
Date
2003
Language
Finnish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - legislation & jurisprudence - trends
Alcoholism - complications - mortality - prevention & control
Finland - epidemiology
Health promotion
Humans
Life Style
Policy Making
PubMed ID
14870513 View in PubMed
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Alcoholic females. II. Causes of death with reference to sex difference.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature13143
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1977 Aug;56(2):81-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1977
Author
L. Dahlgren
M. Myrhed
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1977 Aug;56(2):81-91
Date
Aug-1977
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Adult
Alcoholism - complications - mortality
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Female
Gastrointestinal Diseases - epidemiology
Humans
Liver Cirrhosis - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Prognosis
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology
Sex Factors
Suicide
Sweden
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology
Abstract
The aim of this study has been to explore and compare the mortality of 100 female and 100 male alcoholics, admitted to a department of alcoholic diseases in 1963-69. The patients were early cases and mortality was studied during an observation period of 6-12 years. A total of 18 women and 16 men died. As compared with the general population, mortality was 5.6 and 3.0 times higher than expected for the women and men, respectively. Among the women a significant excess mortality was found for accidents, suicides, diseases of the respiratory system, and especially cirrhosis of the liver. Mortality among the men was significantly higher than expected due to suicides, diseases of the circulatory system, neoplasms, chronic alcoholism, and acute alcohol poisoning. The excess mortality from suicides found for both sexes was highest in the female group. Despite the hitherto rather small number of deaths in the two groups, the high frequency of cirrhosis of the liver among the women is striking.
PubMed ID
899846 View in PubMed
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Alcoholic intemperance, coronary heart disease and mortality in middle-aged Swedish men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12630
Source
Acta Med Scand. 1987;222(3):201-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
1987
Author
A. Rosengren
L. Wilhelmsen
K. Pennert
G. Berglund
D. Elmfeldt
Author Affiliation
Department of Internal Medicine, Ostra Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
Source
Acta Med Scand. 1987;222(3):201-13
Date
1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking
Alcoholism - complications - mortality
Coronary Disease - etiology - mortality
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - mortality
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Abstract
High alcohol consumption is one of the major risk indicators for premature death in middle-aged men. An indicator of alcohol abuse--registration with the social authorities for alcoholic problems--was used to evaluate the role of alcohol in relation to general and cause-specific mortality in a general population sample. Altogether 1,116 men (11%) out of a total population of 10,004 men were registered for alcoholic problems. Total mortality during 11.8 years' follow-up was 10.4% among the non-registered men, compared to 20.5% among men with occasional convictions for drunkenness and 29.6% among heavy abusers. Fatal cancer as a whole was not independently associated with alcohol abuse, but oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers together were seven times more common in the alcohol-registered groups. Total coronary heart disease (CHD) was significantly and independently associated with alcohol abuse, but nearly all the excess CHD mortality among the alcohol-registered men could be attributed to sudden coronary death. Cases with definite recent myocardial infarction were not more common in the alcoholic population. A combined effect of coronary arteriosclerosis and heart muscle damage secondary to alcohol abuse is suggested. Other causes of death strongly associated with registration for alcohol abuse include pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and peptic ulcer, as well as death from liver cirrhosis and alcoholism. Of the excess mortality among alcohol-registered subjects, 20.1% could be attributed to CHD, 18.1% to violent death, 13.6% to alcoholism without another diagnosis and 11.1% to liver cirrhosis.
PubMed ID
3425375 View in PubMed
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Alcohol increases circulatory disease mortality in Russia: acute and chronic effects or misattribution of cause?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142500
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Oct;39(5):1279-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
David A Leon
Vladimir M Shkolnikov
Martin McKee
Nikolay Kiryanov
Evgueny Andreev
Author Affiliation
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. david.leon@lshtm.ac.uk
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Oct;39(5):1279-90
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Alcoholism - complications - mortality
Cardiomyopathy, Alcoholic - mortality
Cardiovascular Diseases - etiology - mortality
Case-Control Studies
Causality
Chronic Disease
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
There is a consensus that the large fluctuations in mortality seen in Russia in the past two decades can be attributed to trends in alcohol consumption. However, the precise mechanisms linking alcohol to mortality from circulatory disease remain unclear. It has recently been argued that a substantial number of such deaths currently ascribed to cardiovascular disorders are misclassified cases of acute alcohol poisoning.
Analysis of routine mortality data and of a case-control study of mortality among working-age (25-54 years) men occurring in the Russian city of Izhevsk, west of the Ural mountains, 2003-05. Interviews were carried out with proxy informants for both the dead cases (N?=?1750) and the controls (N?=?1750) selected at random from a population register. Mortality was analysed according to indicators of alcohol problems.
Hazardous drinking was associated with an increased risk of death from circulatory diseases as a whole [odds ratio (OR)?=?4.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.23, 5.31] adjusted for age, smoking and education. The association with alcoholic cardiomyopathy was particularly strong (OR?=?15.7, 95% CI 9.5, 25.9). Although there was no association with deaths from myocardial infarction (MI; OR?=?1.17, 95% CI 0.59, 2.32), there was a strong association with the aggregate of all other ischaemic heart disease (IHD; OR?=?4.04, 95% CI 2.79, 5.84). Stronger associations for each of these causes (other than MI) were seen with whether or not the man had drunk very heavily in the previous week. However, associations also remained when analyses were restricted to subjects with no evidence of recent heavy drinking, suggesting that misclassification of acute alcohol poisonings is unlikely to explain these overall associations.
Taken as a whole, the available evidence suggests that the positive association of alcohol with increased cardiovascular disease mortality may be best explained as being the result of a combination of chronic and acute alcohol consumption resulting in alcohol-related cardiac disorders, especially cardiomyopathy, rather than being due to misclassification of acute alcohol poisoning. Further work is required to understand the mechanisms underlying the link between heavy alcohol consumption and deaths classified as being due to IHD (other than MI).
Notes
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PubMed ID
20591986 View in PubMed
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Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1995 Sep 20;115(22):2757-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-20-1995
Author
O G Aasland
Author Affiliation
Legeforeningens forskningsinstitutt, Lysaker.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1995 Sep 20;115(22):2757-8
Date
Sep-20-1995
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Alcoholism - complications - mortality - prevention & control
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
PubMed ID
7570488 View in PubMed
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Alcohol-related death: a major contributor to mortality in urban middle-aged men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12925
Source
Lancet. 1982 Nov 13;2(8307):1088-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-13-1982
Author
B. Petersson
P. Krantz
H. Kristensson
E. Trell
N H Sternby
Source
Lancet. 1982 Nov 13;2(8307):1088-90
Date
Nov-13-1982
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident Proneness
Age Factors
Alcoholism - complications - mortality - prevention & control
Humans
Liver Diseases, Alcoholic - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk
Rural Population
Sex Factors
Sweden
Abstract
The role of alcohol abuse in mortality was studied in an unselected population of over 10,000 46-48-year-old men in Malmö, Sweden. During follow-up of 0-6 years (mean 3 years) 199 men died. In 61 men (30.7%) death was alcohol related. A theoretical calculation of excess deaths in men with an alcohol-positive history yielded 78 deaths (39.2%). In the official cause of death statistics 10 of the deaths had been assigned alcoholic aetiology (5.0%). These estimates indicate that alcohol was the commonest underlying factor in death in this sample of middle-aged men. The number of deaths with alcoholic aetiology in official cause of death statistics should be multiplied by a factor of six to eight to arrive at the true alcohol-related death rate.
PubMed ID
6127552 View in PubMed
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40 records – page 1 of 4.