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Alcohol policy in a Russian region: a stakeholder analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144596
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2010 Oct;20(5):588-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
Artyom Gil
Olga Polikina
Natalia Koroleva
David A Leon
Martin McKee
Author Affiliation
I.M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy, 8-2 Trubetskaya street, Moscow, Russia. artyom.gil@lshtm.ac.uk
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2010 Oct;20(5):588-94
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol drinking - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Alcoholic Beverages
Commerce
Government
Health Policy
Humans
Industry
Interviews as Topic
Russia
Abstract
Male life expectancy in the Russian Federation, at 60 years, is the lowest in Europe. Several factors contribute to this situation, but hazardous consumption of alcohol is especially a key factor.
We undertook a stakeholder analysis in a typical Russian region located on the western side of the Urals. Organizations with a stake in alcohol policy in the region were identified by snowball sampling and information on their position and influence on alcohol policy was elicited from interviews with key informants. Their interests and influence were mapped and their relationships plotted.
Twenty-nine stakeholder organizations were identified and 43 interviews were conducted with their staff. The most influential actors were the Federal and regional governments, large beer producers and manufacturers of strong alcohols. However, the majority of organizations that might be expected to play a role in developing or implementing alcohol control policies were almost entirely disengaged and fragmented. No evidence was found of an existing or emerging multi-sectoral coalition for developing alcohol policy to improve health. Organizations that might be expected to contribute to tackling hazardous drinking had little understanding of what might be effective.
While stakeholders with an interest in maintaining or increasing alcohol consumption are engaged and influential, those who might seek to reduce it either take a very narrow perspective or are disengaged from the policy agenda. There is a need to mobilize actors who might contribute to effective policies while challenging those who can block them.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20350932 View in PubMed
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Alcohol-related policy measures in Ontario: who supports what and to what degree?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195320
Source
Can J Public Health. 2001 Jan-Feb;92(1):24-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
L. Anglin
L. Kavanagh
N. Giesbrecht
Author Affiliation
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Addiction Research Foundation Site, 33 Russell Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 2S1. lise_anglin@camh.net
Source
Can J Public Health. 2001 Jan-Feb;92(1):24-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alcohol drinking - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Attitude to Health
Data Collection
Educational Status
Female
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
National Health Programs
Ontario
Policy Making
Public Health
Public Opinion
Abstract
Using 1998 provincial survey data (n = 1,205), the authors examine responses to 7 items concerning public opinion on alcohol-related policy in Ontario. The purpose of the study is to get a sense of overall public opinion on certain topical policy-related measures and to see whether this opinion is predicted by demographic characteristics of respondents (sex, age and self-reported drinking pattern). Cross-tabulations of opinion items with demographic variables revealed strong majority support for the status quo with regard to number of liquor and beer stores, beer and liquor store hours, and prohibition of the sale of alcohol in corner stores. A somewhat less robust majority also supported the status quo for alcohol taxes and legal drinking age. Among the demographic groups, high-risk heavy drinkers stood out for their greater support of relaxation of controls and this finding was confirmed by means of logistic regression. The majority of all groups, except frequent bar-goers, liked the idea of warning labels on alcoholic beverage containers. The authors conclude that, according to these survey data, policy initiatives towards greater access to alcohol, such as extended liquor store hours and sale of alcohol in corner stores, are not mandated by the majority of the population of Ontario.
PubMed ID
11257985 View in PubMed
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Bridging a historical gap: can changes in perceptions of law enforcement and social deterrence accelerate the prevention of drunk driving in low and middle-income countries?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278021
Source
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2016 Apr-Jun;38(2):161-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Flavio Pechansky
Aruna Chandran
Tanara Sousa
Source
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2016 Apr-Jun;38(2):161-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - mortality - prevention & control
Alcohol Drinking - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - psychology
Argentina
Australia
Automobile Driving - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Brazil
Breath Tests
Developing Countries
Driving Under the Influence - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - psychology
Humans
Law Enforcement - methods
Mexico
Norway
Perception
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
United States
Abstract
The dangers of driving while under the influence of alcohol/drugs (DWI) have been well established. Many countries have successfully reduced the incidence of DWI through effective law enforcement. We aim to explore the links between how law enforcement is perceived in cultures with different socioeconomic indicators. Our hypothesis is that social norms around definitions of what constitutes "right" vs. "deviant" behavior related to DWI directly contribute to the mode and success of law enforcement.
Road safety professionals from six countries with different levels of DWI rates and enforcement strategies were interviewed regarding the expected local response to a case vignette. Sociodemographic, mortality, and economic indicators for each of these countries were extracted from different sources.
The professionals interviewed described a continuum ranging from unequivocal enforcement and punishment (Australia and Norway) to inconsistent enforcement and punishment with the presence of many legal loopholes (Mexico and Brazil). For the six countries, no apparent correlation was identified purely between alcohol consumption and road traffic mortality. However, there seems to be a correlation between the time period of initial DWI legislation and current gross national income, perceptions of local safety, satisfaction with the local environment, and trust in the national government. Higher levels of these scores are seen in nations in which DWI laws were implemented prior to the 1960s.
Better performing countries seem to have achieved a level of societal agreement that DWI is deviant, generating social stigma against DWI that allows legislation to be enforced. Lessons learned from these countries could help developing countries reduce morbidity and mortality associated with DWI.
PubMed ID
27304759 View in PubMed
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Dutch and Norwegian support of alcohol policy measures to prevent young people from problematic drinking: a cross-national comparison.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125716
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2012 Jul-Aug;47(4):479-85
Publication Type
Article
Author
R. van der Sar
E E Storvoll
E P M Brouwers
L A M van de Goor
J. Rise
H F L Garretsen
Author Affiliation
Department Tranzo, Tilburg University, Tilburg School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, PO Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, The Netherlands. r.vdrsar@uvt.nl
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2012 Jul-Aug;47(4):479-85
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol drinking - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health Policy
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Netherlands
Norway
Principal Component Analysis
Public Opinion
Abstract
To examine whether Dutch and Norwegian adults differ in their opinion on policy measures that may prevent young people from problematic drinking.
Data were derived from a web-based cross-sectional study. In this study, only Dutch and Norwegian adults (aged =24 years) were included (n(NL) = 5023, n(NO) = 1916). Opinions on policy items concerning restrictive and educational measures were examined together with alcohol consumption.
Differences between the opinions of the Dutch and Norwegians concerning the restrictive and educational measures were small. In both countries, the support for restrictive measures was predicted by female gender, higher age and less own alcohol consumption. For the educational measures, the explained variance in the Norwegian and Dutch sample was relatively low; this indicates that opinion was more strongly predicted by other factors.
This study indicates that, despite the differences between the Dutch and Norwegian alcohol policy, differences in opinion are small between Dutch and Norwegian respondents, especially regarding restrictive measures that may prevent young people from drinking.
PubMed ID
22459020 View in PubMed
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The effect of an alcohol ban on the number of alcohol-related hospital visits in Barrow, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6101
Source
Pages 439-442 in R. Fortuine et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 96. Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Anchorage, Alaska, 1996. Int J Circumpolar Health. 1998;57 Supp 1.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
  1 document  
Author
Chiu, A.Y.
Perez, P.E.
Author Affiliation
North Slope Borough Physician Services, Barrow, Alaska, USA.
Source
Pages 439-442 in R. Fortuine et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 96. Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Anchorage, Alaska, 1996. Int J Circumpolar Health. 1998;57 Supp 1.
Date
1998
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Alcohol drinking - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Alcoholism - epidemiology - prevention & control
Arctic Regions
Comparative Study
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Outpatient clinics, hospital - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
Seasons
Software
Statistics, nonparametric
Abstract
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to examine the impact of a change in local alcohol laws on alcohol-related hospital usage. Heavy alcohol consumption and its complications are major health problems in the Arctic. For many years, the sale of alcohol in Barrow was illegal, i.e., "damp" status. In October 1994, the residents of Barrow voted to make both the sale and importation of alcohol illegal, i.e., "dry" status. METHODS: The Public Health Service Hospital in Barrow is the only physician-staffed health care facility for 4,000 residents in Barrow, as well as for five of its seven outlying, dry villages (approximately 2,000 more residents). We retrospectively studied the number of alcohol-related outpatient visits to our hospital from November 1993 through October 1994 (the damp year), and from November 1994 through October 1995 (the dry year). The data used were from the emergency visit log in our outpatient department. RESULTS: We found a 76.5% to 93.2% decrease in alcohol-related outpatient visits when comparing corresponding months during the dry year to those during the damp year. The average overall decrease in alcohol-related outpatient visits was 84.7%. These results were highly significant with a p-value of 0.0022. We conclude that the prohibition of alcohol in remote areas can be an effective method in reducing the amount of alcohol-related health problems and can help make a healthier community.
PubMed ID
10093321 View in PubMed
Documents
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[Enforcement of the mimimum legal age for purchase of alcohol]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature77503
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2007 May 31;127(11):1510-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-31-2007
Author
Rossow Ingeborg
Storvoll Elisabet E
Pape Hilde
Author Affiliation
Statens institutt for rusmiddelforskning, Postboks 565 Sentrum, 0105 Oslo. ir@sirus.no
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2007 May 31;127(11):1510-2
Date
May-31-2007
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Alcohol drinking - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Alcoholic Beverages - supply & distribution
Commerce
Female
Humans
Male
Norway
Questionnaires
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the enforcement of minimum legal age for purchase of alcohol (18 years) in Norway. We have assessed to what extent this requirement is fulfilled in grocery stores, on-premise outlets and monopoly outlets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Questionnaires were filled in by 13-17 year-olds who had started drinking. They were asked about the frequency of purchase attempts in grocery stores, on-premise outlets and in monopoly outlets in the past year and how often their attempt to buy alcohol had been refused. RESULTS: Slightly more than 20% of the under-aged alcohol consumers (n = 9,309) had tried to buy beer in grocery stores; a similar proportion had tried to buy alcohol in pubs, bars, etc, and less than 5% had tried monopoly outlets. More than half of the attempts in grocery stores, 80% in on-premise venues and two thirds of those in monopolies were successful (i.e. purchase was not denied). INTERPRETATION: A stricter enforcement of the minimum legal age is likely to reduce availability of alcohol to the under-aged.
PubMed ID
17551555 View in PubMed
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Front-line police officers' practices, perceptions and attitudes about the enforcement of impaired driving laws in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201197
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1999 Sep;31(5):421-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1999
Author
B. Jonah
L. Yuen
E. Au-Yeung
D. Paterson
N. Dawson
R. Thiessen
H. Arora
Author Affiliation
Road Safety Directorate, Transport Canada, Place de Ville, Ottawa, Ont., Canada. jonah@tc.gc.ca
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1999 Sep;31(5):421-43
Date
Sep-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Adult
Alcohol drinking - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Attitude
Canada
Criminal Law
Data Collection
Female
Humans
Male
Police
Abstract
A survey of front line police officers' practices, perceptions and attitudes regarding detection of impaired driving, processing of driving while impaired (DWI) charges, criminal court proceedings and DWI sanctions was conducted across Canada. A sample of 1545 officers of all jurisdictions across the country, representative of different types of police services (i.e. national, provincial, municipal) and types of policing (i.e. traffic, general duty) were surveyed by mail. The results, based on a 71% response rate, indicate that: an average of 7.5 charges/year are laid by officers resulting mainly from erratic driving; videotaping and mobile breath testing could improve efficiency of DWI enforcement; it takes an average of 2 h 48 min to process each DWI charge; about 2/3 of officers say plea bargaining occurs at least sometimes; the average length of DWI trial is over 4 h; less than half of officers think Crown Attorneys are adequately prepared for DWI cases; about 3/4 of officers think the accused escapes conviction on a legal technicality at least sometimes; about 30% of officers say short-term licence suspensions and other forms of discretion are used at least sometimes; DWI places fifth in priority among 15 offences, up from eighth in a 1981 survey; DWI is a priority for most police management but human resources are not adequate; and there is greater support for administrative than for Criminal Code changes. Multiple regressions indicated that the number of DWI charges laid by officers depended mainly on the officers' personal priority regarding DWI enforcement. The results suggest that many officers want to enforce DWI laws but that the numerous procedural and legal barriers that they confront often force them to exercise discretion in the laying of DWI charges.
PubMed ID
10440540 View in PubMed
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The influence of economic interests on alcohol control policy: a case study from Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195651
Source
Addiction. 2000 Dec;95 Suppl 4:S565-79
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2000
Author
M. Alavaikko
E. Osterberg
Author Affiliation
National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Alcohol and Drug Research Group, POB 220, Helsinki, 00531, Finland.
Source
Addiction. 2000 Dec;95 Suppl 4:S565-79
Date
Dec-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol drinking - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Alcoholic Beverages - economics
Commerce
Drug and Narcotic Control
European Union
Finland
Health Policy
Humans
Licensure
Organizational Case Studies
Abstract
Finland's participation in the European Union has meant that Finnish markets have been opened to international competition and that the traditional alcohol policy decision-making that revolved around Alko, the state alcohol monopoly company, has become impossible. The influence of private commercial interests increased in the 1990s but not in a straightforward manner. They had their biggest influence in the mid-1990s when the 1994 Alcohol Act was drafted and accepted. After that the influence of commercial interests has declined, and nowadays the alcohol question is again discussed in terms of public health and safety and drinking among young people. Integration did not lead to the expected deregulation of alcohol control but to new forms of regulation, where EU authorities such as the Commission and the EU Court also play an important role. Alcohol policy-making is now more transparent, and free trade and competition without interference are much more stressed than previously. These are the new frames of public intervention in the alcohol question, both in the trade of alcoholic beverages and in the taking care of individuals harmed by the use of alcohol.
PubMed ID
11218352 View in PubMed
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Prohibition and the meaning of legislation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211008
Source
CMAJ. 1996 Oct 1;155(7):860-1
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-1996
Author
M. Latowsky
Source
CMAJ. 1996 Oct 1;155(7):860-1
Date
Oct-1-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol drinking - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Canada
Humans
Temperance - legislation & jurisprudence
Notes
Comment In: CMAJ. 1997 Jan 1;156(1):199053278
PubMed ID
8837528 View in PubMed
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[Psychosocial survey of drunken drivers within the KAPUBRA project. A new interview technique suitable for matching the right treatment with the right client]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10155
Source
Lakartidningen. 2001 Aug 8;98(32-33):3426-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-8-2001
Author
A. Andrén
H. Bergman
H. Laurell
F. Schlyter
Author Affiliation
Institutionen för klinisk neurovetenskap, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
Source
Lakartidningen. 2001 Aug 8;98(32-33):3426-32
Date
Aug-8-2001
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - psychology
Alcoholism - complications - diagnosis - psychology - rehabilitation
Automobile Driving - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Behavior, Addictive
Cognitive Therapy
English Abstract
Follow-Up Studies
Forensic Psychiatry
Humans
Interview, Psychological - methods
Opioid-Related Disorders - complications - diagnosis - psychology - rehabilitation
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Regional Medical Programs
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Severity of Illness Index
Social Problems - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - psychology
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Abstract
Three different programs for individuals convicted of drunken driving are being evaluated in a randomized design in collaboration between researchers at the Karolinska Institute and the Prison and Probation Service in Sweden. In the years 1996-1998, 912 clients were interviewed by means of a structured interview, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), which covers seven problem areas (medical status, alcohol use, employment status, drug use, legal status, family/social and psychiatric status). So far about half of the subjects have been re-investigated two years after leave. Initially, the group being investigated had problems particularly in the areas of criminality and alcohol use. Two years later a positive trend in most of the problem areas could be observed for clients in follow-up.
PubMed ID
11526664 View in PubMed
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12 records – page 1 of 2.