The purpose of the study was to describe the sense of coherence (SOC) of three groups of Finnish polytechnic students (n=287) at the beginning of their studies and to follow it during a period of 3 year amongst the health care students (n=63) of this group. The associations between SOC and smoking, drinking and physical exercise were also studied. The data were collected with a questionnaire which included Antonovsky's (Adv. Nurs. Sci. 1(1983)37) SOC scale. Data analysis was with SPSS statistical software. The students showed a strong sense of coherence at the beginning of their studies. Physical activity was related to the strength of SOC, but no association was found with smoking and drinking. Health care students showed a stronger SOC at the beginning of their studies than the two other groups. During the follow-up focused on the health care students, SOC weakened in 6%, remained unchanged in 65% and strengthened in 32% of the participants. Smoking, drinking and physical exercise showed no association with these changes. Future research should be focused on identifying factors that are related to SOC during education.
The purpose of this study was first to compare 18-19-year-old male abstainers with alcohol consumers, and especially light consumers, regarding degree of sociability as indicated by their (in)security in the company of others, their number of close friends, intimate conversations with friends and their popularity in school. Secondly, we analysed the importance of antecedents to and covariates of abstinence. In addition, the significant antecedents and covariates gave us information as to abstinence patterns. The study was based on a survey of all Swedish males, 18-19 years old, conscripted for military service in 1969-70. Data had been collected by means of questionnaires and psychological interviews, giving measures of each respondent's social background, psychiatric/psychological and psychosomatic health status, substance use, deviant behaviour and degree of sociability. Poor sociability was more common among the abstainers than among all the other categories of drinkers, including the light consumers. The conscripts' social background, and especially their fathers' drinking habits, had the strongest effects in explaining abstinence. Sixty-two per cent of all abstainers had non-drinking fathers, compared to 28% of the light consumers. As to the majority of abstainers, this indicates a link between the social background of temperance and their own reported abstinence. Their poor sociability could be a consequence of abstaining at a young age when abstinence is uncommon. Those who abstained despite a drinking father showed a worsening psychological status, suggesting a link between psychologically impaired health, poor sociability and abstinence. Though the abstainers were the least sociable, the difference between the abstainers, the light consumers and the moderate consumers in other categories were generally small.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
OBJECTIVE: A survey was conducted to estimate the acceptability of the controlled drinking goal among treatment services in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, and to compare results with similar surveys carried out elsewhere. METHOD: Of all identified alcohol treatment services (N = 295) in NSW, 179 (61%) responded to a mailed questionnaire with useable returns. RESULTS: Nearly three-quarters of respondents endorsed controlled drinking but half of these reported allocating less than 25% of their clients to this goal. Community-based services and alcohol treatment units were significantly more likely to endorse controlled drinking than were residential or private facilities. Community-based services and alcohol treatment units were also more likely to base the appropriateness of controlled drinking on professional experience and research evidence, whereas residential and private facilities relied more on the disease model or agency policy in making this determination. Respondents with tertiary qualifications were more likely to endorse controlled drinking than those without such qualifications, and these respondents were more likely to be found in community-based services and alcohol treatment units. CONCLUSIONS: The results show widespread support for the controlled drinking goal among NSW alcohol treatment services. This is similar to the reported status of controlled drinking in Britain and Norway and stands in marked contrast to the comparative reluctance of treatment services in North America to endorse the controlled drinking goal.
The present study was conducted to provide a nationwide survey of acceptance of nonabstinence goals and related alcoholism treatment practices by Canadian alcoholism treatment services.
A random sample of 335 Canadian alcoholism treatment service agencies were mailed a 4-page questionnaire designed to assess acceptance of moderate drinking as a drinking goal and related alcoholism treatment practices.
Acceptance varied by type of service, with considerably more acceptance by outpatient programs (62%) and mixed inpatient/outpatient programs (43%) than inpatient/detoxification/ correctional facilities (27%) and halfway houses (16%). Two-thirds of the respondents who reported moderate drinking as unacceptable in their own agencies categorically rejected moderation for all alcoholism clients.
Individuals seeking services in Canadian alcoholism treatment agencies are more likely to have a choice of drinking goals if they present to an outpatient program than a residential institution, and Canadian agencies appear more accepting of moderation goals than American programs, but less accepting than British and Norwegian service agencies.
We aim to compare four different weighting methods to adjust for non-response in a survey on drinking habits and to examine whether the problem of under-coverage of survey estimates of alcohol use could be remedied by these methods in comparison to sales statistics.
The data from a general population survey of Finns aged 15-79 years in 2016 ( n=2285, response rate 60%) were used. Outcome measures were the annual volume of drinking and prevalence of hazardous drinking. A wide range of sociodemographic and regional variables from registers were available to model the non-response. Response propensities were modelled using logistic regression and random forest models to derive two sets of refined weights in addition to design weights and basic post-stratification weights.
Estimated annual consumption changed from 2.43 litres of 100% alcohol using design weights to 2.36-2.44 when using the other three weights and the estimated prevalence of hazardous drinkers changed from 11.4% to 11.4-11.8%, correspondingly. The use of weights derived by the random forest method generally provided smaller estimates than use of the logistic regression-based weights.
The use of complex non-response weights derived from the logistic regression model or random forest are not likely to provide much added value over more simple weights in surveys on alcohol use. Surveys may not catch heavy drinkers and therefore are prone for under-reporting of alcohol use at the population level. Also, factors other than sociodemographic characteristics are likely to influence participation decisions.
Based on a psyschosocial developmental framework, this study used a mixed model design, including both quantitative and qualitative methods, to examine the relationship between adolescents' psychosocial maturity and their alcohol use. A sample of 1,198 10th-grade students (51% female) was surveyed and followed up two years later. Both concurrent and longitudinal findings indicated that the more psychosocially mature adolescents were less likely to drink heavily than those who showed less maturity. At age 15 this relationship was even stronger for those whose peers also drank. Further, at age 17, this linear relationship was more pronounced for those who drank less heavily at age 15. Of the three psychosocial competencies examined, the construct of personal meaning was more strongly related to adolescent alcohol use than were the constructs of interpersonal understanding and interpersonal skills. To illustrate this construct, two of the adolescents were interviewed, a girl and a boy, individually at the end of both school years. Thematic and developmental analyses of the interviews revealed individual variations in how the adolescents made meaning of their drinking; these encourage speculations that go beyond the general pattern found in the study.
Fifty-two extremely premature born and 54 full-term controls were assessed regarding behavioral outcomes, risk-taking and self-perceived quality of life. Behavioral outcomes were assessed with the Achenbach Youth Self Report; risk-taking was estimated regarding alcohol and nicotine use; self-perceived quality of life and future expectations were rated; and attention and hyperactivity problems were surveyed retrospectively with the Wender Utah Rating Scale. The prematurely born reported fewer problems than full-term born on the externalizing scale (delinquent behavior and aggressive behaviour); and they reported less alcohol consumption. No difference was observed between the two groups concerning nicotine use, views about quality of life and expectations for the future or in the retrospective assessment of attention and hyper-activity problems. Conclusively, the prematurely born adolescents described a quality of life and future expectations comparable to full-term born controls. They also reported fewer behavioral problems and less risk-taking behavior.
The article explores how young people understand the risks of alcohol use and how these understandings are associated with differing drinking situations and social settings. By taking account of situational factors, the aim is to demonstrate how young people have highly nuanced notions of drinking styles that suit different drinking situations and of associated risks. The data for the research were gathered in 18 group interviews with Finnish ninth graders aged 14-15 years. Short film clips portraying young people in different drinking situations were used as stimulus material for the interviews. Data analysis focussed on the risk factors related to the social situations illustrated in the film clips. The results show that young people's risk assessments are not based on alcohol itself, but the magnitude of risk is estimated in relation to the social setting of the drinking situation. What is relevant for young people is whether the social situation allows them to make choices with which they feel comfortable. At the opposite pole of problem drinking was social drinking for the purpose of having fun together with other people in such a way that one remains in control of the drinking situation. From a prevention point of view, a key implication is that awareness of the risks is closely associated with situational and social factors. However, the awareness of those risks does not necessarily prevent young people from drinking because they may be accepted as part of the drinking experience.
Forty-nine women who attended a surgical emergency department after being battered are the subjects of this prospective study. The childhood and adolescence of the women had been marked by abuse and violence in the parental home. Most of the women had suffered prolonged, repeated battering. Fifty-one per cent of the women and 88% of their male assailants were considered to be heavy consumers of alcohol and in over half of the cases of battering both the man and the women had been drinking. In most cases the women's own children were present when the mother was beaten. One third of the women stated that they were highly dependent on the man in question emotionally. It is concluded that social heredity, heavy consumption of alcohol and emotional dependence on the male assailant are major reasons for the woman's inability to break away from a relationship characterized by repeated battering.
Health service prevention of alcohol problems is based on screening and primarily involves motivational counselling. Screening may take the form of routine enquiries about drinking habits. Motivational counselling consists in two parts, assessment of readiness to change, and counselling adapted to the readiness to change. Alcohol problems do not generally require intervention by a specialist, but rather by an observer who suggests a change. Doctors and health care authorities alike should pursue the prevention of alcohol problems by such methods as a matter of policy, as this is a demonstrably effective approach which would enable both the need and costs of health care to be reduced.