This paper examines the effect of banning broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages. The data used in this study are a pooled time series from 17 countries for the period 1970 to 1983. The empirical results show that countries with bans on spirits advertising have about 16% lower alcohol consumption than countries with no bans and that countries with bans on beer and wine advertising have about 11% lower alcohol consumption than countries with bans only on spirits advertising.
Comment In: J Health Econ. 1993 Jul;12(2):213-2810127781
To elucidate the possible effects of Russian alcohol control policy on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality for the period 2000-2010.
Narrative review including statistical analysis. Trends before and after 2006 are compared, 2006 being the date of implementation of the Russian government's long-term strategy to reduce alcohol-related harms. Mortality data were taken from the World Health Organization (WHO) database 'Health for All'. Data on recorded alcohol consumption were taken from the WHO, based on the Russian Statistical Service (Rosstat). For unrecorded consumption, the calculations of Alexandr Nemtsov were used. Russian public opinion surveys on drinking habits were utilized. Treatment data on alcohol dependence were obtained from the Moscow National Research Centre on Addictions. Information on alcohol policy was obtained from official reports.
Marked fluctuations in all-cause and alcohol-associated mortality in the working-age population were observed during the reviewed period. A decrease in total consumption and mortality was noted since the end of 2005, when the Russian government initially adopted the regulation of alcohol production and sale. The consumption changes were driven by decreases in recorded and unrecorded spirit consumption, only partly compensated for by increases in beer and wine consumption.
Alcohol is a strong contributor to premature deaths in Russia, with both the volume and the pattern of consumption being detrimental to health. The regulations introduced since 2006 seem to have positive effects on both drinking behavior and health outcomes. However, there is an urgent need for further alcohol-control strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm.
OBJECTIVE: This article tests whether different forms of community-level alcohol control significantly affect injury deaths in a population with extremely high injury mortality. METHOD: The 1981 Alaska local option law provides a natural experiment for studying how implementation of community level controls may be associated with changes in injury deaths, most of which are alcohol-related, among Alaska Natives living in small communities. The study compares population and community-specific death rates under different levels of alcohol control for the 97 communities that passed restrictions between 1980 and 1993 with the death rates in the same communities during periods when no restrictions were in place. RESULTS: Injury death rates were generally lower during periods when alcohol sales, importation or possession were restricted than when no restrictions were in place (wet). More restrictive controls (dry) significantly reduced homicides; less restrictive control options (damp) reduced suicides. Accident and homicide death rates fell, on average, by 74 and 66 per 100,000, respectively, for the 89 communities that banned sale and importation or possession. A control group of 61 small communities that did not change control status under the law showed no significant changes over time in accident or homicide death rates. CONCLUSIONS: The changes in accidental and homicide death rates are statistically significant, although these reduced rates remain 2.5 to 7 times national death rates. The isolated nature of Alaskan villages may explain why alcohol control has more effect in Alaska than has been found in studies of Native Americans living in other states.
The purpose of this study was to determine if communities in Nunavut that prohibit the importation of alcoholic beverages have less violence relative to communities that allow alcohol importation.
A retrospective cross-sectional study based on community-level records of violent crimes known to the police.
Violence was measured using community-level records of homicide, assault and sexual assault as reported to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 23 communities in Nunavut for the years 1986 to 2006. Crude-rate comparisons were made between wet communities (which allow alcohol importation) and dry communities (which prohibit alcohol importation) and contrasted with national rates for context.
Wet communities in Nunavut recorded rates of violent crime that were higher than the rates recorded by dry communities. Relative to dry communities, wet communities' overall sexual assault rate was 1.48 (95% CI = 1.38-1.60) times higher, the serious assault rate was 2.10 (95% CI = 1.88-2.35) times higher and the homicide rate was 2.88 (95% CI = 1.18-8.84) times higher. Although safer than wet communities, dry communities reported rates of violence that were higher than national rates including a serious assault rate that was double the national rate (3.25 per 1,000 vs. 1.44 per 1,000) and a sexual assault rate that was at least seven times as high as the national rate (7.58 per 1,000 vs. 0.88 per 1,000).
As elsewhere in the Arctic, communities in Nunavut that prohibited alcohol were less violent than those that allowed alcohol importation. Even with prohibition, dry communities recorded rates of violence much greater than the national average.
Male life expectancy in the Russian Federation, at 60 years, is the lowest in Europe. Several factors contribute to this situation, but hazardous consumption of alcohol is especially a key factor.
We undertook a stakeholder analysis in a typical Russian region located on the western side of the Urals. Organizations with a stake in alcohol policy in the region were identified by snowball sampling and information on their position and influence on alcohol policy was elicited from interviews with key informants. Their interests and influence were mapped and their relationships plotted.
Twenty-nine stakeholder organizations were identified and 43 interviews were conducted with their staff. The most influential actors were the Federal and regional governments, large beer producers and manufacturers of strong alcohols. However, the majority of organizations that might be expected to play a role in developing or implementing alcohol control policies were almost entirely disengaged and fragmented. No evidence was found of an existing or emerging multi-sectoral coalition for developing alcohol policy to improve health. Organizations that might be expected to contribute to tackling hazardous drinking had little understanding of what might be effective.
While stakeholders with an interest in maintaining or increasing alcohol consumption are engaged and influential, those who might seek to reduce it either take a very narrow perspective or are disengaged from the policy agenda. There is a need to mobilize actors who might contribute to effective policies while challenging those who can block them.
Cites: Health Policy Plan. 2000 Sep;15(3):239-4611012397
Cites: Lancet. 2001 Mar 24;357(9260):917-2111289348
Using 1998 provincial survey data (n = 1,205), the authors examine responses to 7 items concerning public opinion on alcohol-related policy in Ontario. The purpose of the study is to get a sense of overall public opinion on certain topical policy-related measures and to see whether this opinion is predicted by demographic characteristics of respondents (sex, age and self-reported drinking pattern). Cross-tabulations of opinion items with demographic variables revealed strong majority support for the status quo with regard to number of liquor and beer stores, beer and liquor store hours, and prohibition of the sale of alcohol in corner stores. A somewhat less robust majority also supported the status quo for alcohol taxes and legal drinking age. Among the demographic groups, high-risk heavy drinkers stood out for their greater support of relaxation of controls and this finding was confirmed by means of logistic regression. The majority of all groups, except frequent bar-goers, liked the idea of warning labels on alcoholic beverage containers. The authors conclude that, according to these survey data, policy initiatives towards greater access to alcohol, such as extended liquor store hours and sale of alcohol in corner stores, are not mandated by the majority of the population of Ontario.