Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and is experiencing one of the fastest-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Given these co-occurring health problems, we systematically reviewed combined alcohol and sexual risk interventions to reduce HIV among Russians. We completed comprehensive electronic searches to locate studies that (a) sampled people living in Russia, (b) used a behavioral intervention, and (c) assessed both alcohol and sexual risk behavior. These searches yielded 584 studies, of these, two were included. Compared with controls, intervention participants reported increasing their condom use (ds ranged from 0.12 to 0.85). Within-group improvements in sexual behaviors were found for both groups (ds ranged from 0.19 to 1.94); participants reported fewer sexual partners, more condom use, and reduced alcohol or drug use before sex. These findings support the need and potential benefits for alcohol and HIV interventions among Russians, and suggest directions for public policy.
The present study aimed to evaluate the frequency and the target group of alcohol screening and brief interventions in health-care settings and how well this level of activity reflects public opinion.
A general population survey.
A random sample of Finns aged 15-69 years with a 74% response rate (n = 2725).
Frequency counts were used to evaluate the level of activity. Logistic regression models were used to examine which groups were asked and advised about alcohol use and which groups considered it useful.
More than 90% had positive attitudes towards being asked about their alcohol use. Of those who had been in contact with health care (n = 2062) in the 12 months before the survey, 33.3% had been asked about their alcohol use, being most often men, young, heavy drinkers and those of high socio-economic status. Thirty-seven per cent of those who had been asked were given advice, being most often heavy drinkers and those with a normal body mass index. However, 50% of heavy drinkers who had been asked about their alcohol use had not been advised about it. Of those who had been advised, 71.9% considered it useful, especially older subjects, and also including heavy episodic drinkers, although less than others.
In Finland, the frequency of health-care professionals asking and giving advice on alcohol is relatively low. However, public opinion towards these discussions is positive. Our results encourage the support and uptake of systematic screenings and brief interventions in health-care settings.
The present study addresses previously neglected research areas among couples with normal drinking habits, namely control attempts and encouragement of drinking. In this study, semistructured interviews were conducted in 2001 with 27 individuals living in steady couple relationships in Helsinki. Forms of active social control of drinking were classified into four categories and were investigated on the dimensions of indirect-direct and mild-strong. Further analysis suggests that the form of control reflects the degree of individualization in relationships, at least when drinking is concerned. Later, the exploration of encouragement of drinking shows that the culturally crucial feature of the qualified drinker is the preservation of one's own will. Then, it is concluded that in a couple relationship, social control and encouragement of drinking are, above all, complementary. Finally, the significance of drinking's social control is not restricted to alcohol use only, and it is surprisingly great in couple relationships, especially in preventing deviant drinking behavior. Several factors are presented that contribute to the increase of social control's importance.
AIMS: To assess to what extent use of various criteria for high-risk groups and analyses from subpopulations with different drinking patterns may affect the extent of the prevention paradox (that most alcohol-related harm in populations arises within the drinkers at low risk). Data sets Two national surveys of Norwegian adult samples (n = 4321 current drinkers) and one register linkage of Swedish armed forces conscripts (n = 45 839 current drinkers) with in-patient hospital data. MEASURES: High-risk groups were categorized as the upper 10% of drinkers by annual alcohol intake or by intoxication frequency. Acute alcohol-related harms comprised number of quarrels and fights in the Norwegian surveys and number of hospital admissions for attempted suicide and violent injuries over a follow-up period (3 and 25 years) in the Swedish conscript study. RESULTS: The majority of acute alcohol problems were found among the majority of drinkers with low or moderate risk (the lower 90%) by drinking volume, suggesting empirical support for the prevention paradox. By applying frequency of intoxication rather than annual volume of consumption to determine the high-risk group, a somewhat larger proportion of acute alcohol-related harms was found within the high-risk group, and the number of alcohol-related harms tended to be distributed more evenly between high-risk drinkers and other drinkers. The proportion of alcohol-related harms within the risk groups was significantly lower in the younger age group, where the majority drinks to intoxication compared with other drinkers. CONCLUSION: The extent of the prevention paradox with respect to acute alcohol problems may be more prominent in drinking in subpopulations where intoxication is a common part of the drinking pattern compared with those where intoxication occurs less frequently and among a smaller fraction of the drinkers.
A sample of 457 university students were queried concerning their use of alcohol. The majority (90%) of students reported drinking at least once over the past year, with men drinking more often. Age differences were noted, with older students (Mdn = 32.0 yr. vs 19.0 yr.) more likely to report drinking 4 to 6 times per week. Women generally had healthier attitudes concerning alcohol consumption, e.g., more likely to try to prevent a friend from driving after drinking, pay for use of a taxi, or have a designated driver. Men were more likely to indicate that it is socially acceptable to be intoxicated occasionally and also that most drinkers do not suffer health problems as a result of their drinking. The present study indicates a need to educate university students about the effects of alcohol with a particular emphasis needed for male students.
The aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences in students' health habits and motivation for a healthy lifestyle. The sample of students comprised a probability systematic stratified sample from each department at a small university in the south-west of Sweden (n = 479). A questionnaire created for this study was used for data collection. Self-rated health was measured by number of health complaints, where good health was defined as having less than three health complaints during the last month. A healthy lifestyle index was computed on habits related to smoking, alcohol consumption, food habits, physical activity and stress. Female students had healthier habits related to alcohol consumption and nutrition but were more stressed. Male students showed a high level of overweight and obesity and were less interested in nutrition advice and health enhancing activities. The gender differences are discussed in relation to the impact of stress on female students' health, and the risk for male students in having unhealthy nutritional habits in combination with being physically inactive and drinking too much alcohol.
We address three research questions pertaining to Swedish restaurant workers: (i) What is the prevalence of hazardous drinking? (ii) How is the consumption of alcohol distributed? (iii) Does the prevention paradox apply?
Data were collected by administering the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) among restaurant workers who attended a 2-day Responsible Beverage Service training in Stockholm during the period from October 2008 to December 2009. The control group comprised a sample representative of the general Swedish population. We restricted the analyses to the age span 18-59 years, which yielded a sample size of 579 for restaurant workers and 434 for the general population.
The prevalence of hazardous drinking as measured by AUDIT (8+ for men and 6+ for women) was markedly higher among restaurant workers than in the general population. The difference was especially pronounced among females below 30 years of age. We found no difference between restaurant workers and the general population in the distribution of alcohol consumption. About 76% of the drinking problems were found in the lower part of the consumption distribution (bottom 88%), which supports the prevention paradox.
Restaurant workers comprise a high-risk group with respect to drinking.
We have analysed data from a longitudinal representative study to explore aggregate and individual level changes in alcohol use from late adolescence to early adulthood. The sample, which consisted of 2000 Norwegians, was assessed at ages 19-22, 21-24 and 25-28 years. Only a bare majority of the respondents reduced their alcohol intake during the course of the study, whereas a substantial proportion showed an increase. The initial drinking level in individuals whose consumption declined was quite high, and the opposite was true for those who increased their consumption. The findings seemed to reflect true changes, implying that they only could be attributed to measurement errors to a limited extent. The stability in absolute alcohol intake was rather low, especially at the very high consumption levels. However, the respondents clearly tended to maintain their relative drinking position over time. Furthermore, the very high consumers were actually somewhat more apt than others to hold their position relative to the group. In contrast to previous research, these results thus suggest that there is a substantial stability in alcohol use over time. This in turn underscores the importance of implementing preventive programmes targeted towards factors that promote heavy drinking in adolescents.
An adjusted quantity-frequency method, with questions on occasions with heavy drinking, was used to estimate the consumption of alcohol during the last 30 days. The purpose was to analyze if it was possible to decrease the underestimation of true alcohol consumption. The questionnaire was mailed to a randomized sample of 1,500 individuals, 20-75 years of age, living in the city of Malmö, Sweden; 930 persons (64.3%) participated. Data on alcohol consumption were validated by comparison to sales of alcohol for the city of Malmö. The estimated per capita consumption of alcohol in the population was equivalent to 77.0% of the registered sale of alcohol in Malmö. By adding days with heavy drinking, the estimated weekly per capita consumption of alcohol among the alcohol consumers increased from 74.5 grams to 77.1 grams (+3.5%; p