Alcohol is a potential risk factor of Type 2 diabetes. However, more detailed information on effects of alcohol types and early phases of Type 2 diabetes development seems warranted. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of alcohol consumption and specific alcoholic beverages on the risk of developing pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Swedish men and women.
Subjects, who at baseline had normal glucose tolerance (2070 men and 3058 women) or pre-diabetes (70 men and 41 women), aged 35-56 years, were evaluated in this cohort study. Logistic regression was performed to estimate the risk [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)] to develop pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes at 8-10 years follow-up, in relation to self-reported alcohol intake at baseline. Adjustment was performed for several risk factors.
Total alcohol consumption and binge drinking increased the risk of pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes in men (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.00-2.03 and OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.11-2.50, respectively), while low consumption decreased diabetes risk in women (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.22-0.79). Men showed higher risk of pre-diabetes with high beer consumption (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.13-3.01) and of Type 2 diabetes with high consumption of spirits (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.27-3.24). Women showed a reduced risk of pre-diabetes with high wine intake (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.43-0.99) and of Type 2 diabetes with medium intake of both wine and spirits (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.88 and OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.31-0.97, respectively), whereas high consumption of spirits increased the pre-diabetes risk(OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.47-3.96).
High alcohol consumption increases the risk of abnormal glucose regulation in men. In women the associations are more complex: decreased risk with low or medium intake and increased risk with high alcohol intake.
To examine the rates of alcohol-related harm in relation to levels of alcohol consumption before, during and after a major anti-alcohol campaign in Moscow.
Changes in State alcohol sale and alcohol consumption and certain forms of alcohol-related harm were observed as a function of time.
Following the 1985 anti-alcohol campaign, State alcohol sales decreased by 38.0% in 1.5 years in Moscow, and total consumption decreased by 28.6%. At the same time, admissions for alcohol-related mental and behavioural disorders, deaths from liver cirrhosis, alcohol poisoning and other blood alcohol positive violent deaths decreased by 63.3%, 33.0%, 50.8% and 50.9%, respectively. There was a linear correlation between medical variables and alcohol consumption during its decrease in 1985-86. An increase in blood alcohol positive violent deaths began in 1987, before the increases in other variables. Growth of total alcohol consumption began in 1987, and continued during all subsequent years, although it was especially high in 1992-93 at the time of the introduction of market reforms in Russia. Alcohol-related mental and behavioural disorders and liver cirrhosis mortality increased after a time-lag following the rise in alcohol consumption.
The findings provide stark evidence of the potential impact of policy measures applied to general alcohol consumption on alcohol-related harm.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review of published articles during 2005-2006 on alcohol use among college students in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe and South America assesses the prevalence of alcohol use, hazardous drinking and related problems, and reviews the effectiveness of intervention methods and implications for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Research on alcohol use and related problems in college students is lacking in many regions of the world. We identified 26 papers in peer-reviewed journals, from Australia, Brazil, Ecuador, Egypt, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Lebanon, New Zealand, Nigeria, Sweden, The Netherlands and Turkey. SUMMARY: More comprehensive studies with systematic methodologies in the world regions reviewed here are needed to yield representative results on alcohol use and related risk and protective factors in college settings. College students in many countries are at elevated risk for heavy drinking, with serious immediate health risks, such as drink-driving and other substance use; and longer term risks, such as alcohol dependence. The prevalence of hazardous drinking in Australasia, Europe and South America appears similar to that in North America, but is lower in Africa and Asia. Alcohol policies should be reviewed and prevention programmes initiated in light of research evidence, for this high-risk population.
To characterize pregnant women who engage in binge drinking and to identify other risk behaviour that these women engage in.
Observational study based on retrospective review of records.
A telephone and outpatient counselling service in Toronto that advises pregnant women about exposure to drugs, chemicals, radiation and infections during pregnancy and lactation.
All pregnant women who sought counselling concerning fetal risk of exposure to binge drinking from 1985 to 1994 as well as those counselled by telephone from 1993 to 1994, and an equal number of control women who sought counselling.
Information about binges, demographic factors, history of elective and spontaneous abortion, and use of psychotropic drugs and cigarettes as well as marijuana, cocaine and other illicit drugs.
Of the 3800 women seen in the clinic, 119 (3.1%) reported binge drinking during pregnancy; of the 19,991 women counselled by telephone, 153 (0.8%) reported binge drinking during pregnancy. The mean number of drinks per binge was 7.2 (standard deviation 2.5). None of the women was an alcoholic; 83.1% had binged fewer than 10 times during their pregnancy. A large majority (84.0%) of the women had a binge early in the first trimester (before 6 weeks' gestation). In comparison with control women, the women who had engaged in binge drinking were significantly younger (mean 30.0 v. 27.9 years, p
BACKGROUND: Consumption of high doses of alcohol on a single occasion (binge drinking) may harm the developing foetus and pregnant women are advised to avoid binge drinking while pregnant. We present characteristics of Danish women who binge drank in the pre-and post recognised part of their pregnancy. METHODS: During the years 1996-2002 approximately 100,000 pregnant women were enrolled into the Danish National Birth Cohort. Women with information on binge drinking, time of recognition of pregnancy, age, reproductive history, marital status, smoking, occupational status, pre-pregnancy BMI, alcohol consumption before pregnancy, and mental disorders (n = 85,334) were included in the analyses. RESULTS: Approximately one quarter of the women reported binge drinking at least once during pregnancy; most of these in the pre-recognised part of pregnancy. Weekly alcohol consumption before pregnancy, single status and smoking were predictors for binge drinking in both the unrecognised and recognised part of pregnancy. Moreover, binge drinking in the pre-recognised part of pregnancy was more common among women aged 25-29 years, who were nulliparous, well educated in good jobs or skilled workers. Binge drinking after recognition of pregnancy was more common among women who were unintended pregnant, multiparous unskilled workers, had been unemployed for more than one year, or had mental/neurotic disorder. CONCLUSIONS: In order to prevent binge drinking during pregnancy, health care providers should target their efforts towards pregnant women as well as pregnancy-planners. It is important to be aware that women who binge drink before versus after the pregnancy is recognised have different social characteristics.
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy may cause many health problems for the child, one of which is fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Since FASD is incurable, actions meant to prevent the occurrence of the disability by targeting drinking women become more important. Epidemiological data on drinking among pregnant women, including prevalence and determinants/risk factors, is essential for designing and evaluating prevention programs.
To estimate the prevalence of drinking alcohol during pregnancy and examine the determinants of this behaviour.
Using the 2007/8 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) data, we estimated the weighted prevalence of women who drank alcohol during their last pregnancy by provinces. We used a weighted logistic regression to examine associations between drinking patterns, substance abuse behaviours, health-related and socio-demographic characteristics of the women, and the outcome variable.
There were two main findings of this study. One was that the 2007/8 prevalence of drinking alcohol during pregnancy in ON, BC, and Canada was estimated at 5.4%, 7.2%, and 5.8%, respectively. The other was that the use of general practitioners (GP) or family physicians (FP) associated with a decreased risk of drinking alcohol during pregnancy.
The results suggest that interventions that involve GP or FP and that increase the use of GP or FP by pregnant women can be effective in reducing drinking alcohol during pregnancy.
Alcohol labels are one strategy for communicating health information to consumers. This study tested the extent to which consumers recalled alcohol labels with national drinking guidelines and examined the impact of labels on awareness and knowledge of the guidelines.
A quasi-experimental study was conducted in two jurisdictions in northern Canada examining the impact of labels on the following outcomes: unprompted and prompted recall of the drinking guideline label message, awareness of the drinking guidelines, and knowledge of the daily and weekly recommended drink limits. The intervention site applied labels with national drinking guidelines, a cancer warning, and standard drink information to alcohol containers in its liquor store, whereas the comparison site did not apply these labels. In total, 2,049 cohort participants in both sites were recruited to complete surveys before and at two time points after the intervention. Changes in outcomes were examined using generalized estimating equations.
After the intervention, unprompted and prompted recall of the drinking guideline label message increased more in the intervention versus comparison site (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 10.8, 95% CI [0.9, 127.6]; AOR = 7.0, 95% CI [3.3, 14.9], respectively). Awareness of the drinking guidelines increased 2.9 times more in the intervention versus comparison site (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI [2.0, 4.3]). In addition, knowledge of the daily and weekly drink limits increased 1.5 and 1.4 times more in the intervention versus comparison site, respectively (daily: AOR = 1.5, 95% CI [1.0, 2.1]; weekly: AOR = 1.4, 95% CI [1.0, 2.0]).
Enhanced alcohol labels get noticed and may be an effective population-level strategy for increasing awareness and knowledge of national drinking guidelines.
Media coverage of alcohol-related policy measures can influence public debate and is often more aligned with interests of the alcohol industry than public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the framing of news coverage of alcohol warning label (AWL) initiatives that included a cancer message on alcohol containers in two different countries. Policy contexts and industry perspectives were also evaluated.
We identified and systematically reviewed news articles published between 2017-2019 covering an AWL academic study in Yukon, Canada, and labeling provisions in a Public Health (Alcohol) Bill in Ireland. Both included a cancer message. News stories were coded for media type and topic slant; inclusion of alcohol industry perspectives was examined using content analysis.
Overall, 68.4% of media articles covering the Yukon Study (n = 38) and 18.9% covering the Ireland Bill (n = 37) were supportive of AWLs with a cancer message. The majority of articles in both sites presented alcohol industry perspectives (Yukon, 65.8%; Ireland, 86.5%), and industry arguments opposing AWLs were similar across both contexts. In articles with statements from industry representatives, the label message was frequently disputed by distorting or denying the evidence that alcohol causes cancer (n = 33/43).
News coverage of AWLs with a cancer message was more supportive in Canada than Ireland, where alcohol industry perspectives were consistently foregrounded. Industry arguments opposing the cancer label bore similarities across contexts, often distorting or denying the evidence. Increasing awareness of industry messaging strategies may generate more critical coverage of industry lobbying activities and increase public support for alcohol policies.
Early onset of alcohol consumption contributes to increased risk of subsequent heavy alcohol use, alcohol dependence and alcohol-related problems. The objective of this study was to examine the onset of alcohol consumption in a group of Danish children.
The study was part of an asthma study and was based on face-to-face interviews with 480 randomly chosen children and adolescents between seven and 18 years of age. Questionnaires were sent to their parents. Onset of alcohol was defined as consumption of at least one unit of alcohol.
Age at onset of alcohol consumption was 13.4 years for boys and 13.9 years for girls (p = 0.020). There was a significant association between age at onset and smoking of the adolescent (hazard ratio 2.19; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.16-4.12, p = 0.015) and maternal smoking during pregnancy (hazard ratio 2.23; 95% CI 1.31-3.78, p = 0.003). We found no association between early onset of alcohol consumption and parents' smoking, drinking, socioeconomic or marital status.
Further knowledge is needed to clarify the factors associated with early onset of alcohol consumption among Danish adolescents.