Drinking habits among 663 adolescents 14, 15, 17 and 18 years of age in three local communities were investigated by means of a questionnaire. Half had tasted alcohol already at the age of 14 years. The total amount consumed per person per year averaged 3.5 litres pure alcohol. Geographical variations in consumption were more than six-fold. At the age of 17 years, boys began to consume more than girls. In both sexes, home distilled spirits was the most common beverage obtained or provided illegally. The main reason for drinking alcohol seems to be to get drunk.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of the timing of alcohol consumption debut and to analyze possible associations between the timing of debut and later alcohol consumption and possible alcohol-related problems. METHOD: A population sample of 465 adolescents (249 girls) from the greater Oslo area was followed up through five data collections over a 6-year span. By means of generalized structural equation modeling--accommodating survival variables--parental and friends' influences on debut age were estimated. Further, the consequences of the age of debut on subsequent alcohol consumption and alcohol problems were studied, taking other influences into consideration. In particular, possible gender differences were investigated. RESULTS: The mean age for alcohol consumption debut was 14.8 years. The age of alcohol debut had an independent effect on both future alcohol consumption and the development of alcohol-related problems, and the effects were invariant across sex. According to the estimated model, a 10% delay in debut age will lead to a 35% decrease in subsequent expected alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol debut was an excellent predictor of subsequent alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. The strong preventive implication is that interventions should be implemented in order to postpone alcohol debut age. A weak implication is that preventive measures should be implemented for the early onset drinkers. Further, it seems to be important to give high priority to more thorough studies on the exact nature of the relationships we have investigated here.
Alcohol use by employees is associated with negative consequences for the workplace in terms of absence and poor work performance. The aims of this study were to map the prevalence of alcohol-related absence and inefficiency using survey data from a broad sample of employees, and to explore how alcohol-related absence and presenteeism are experienced and handled using data from qualitative interviews.
The prevalence data stems from a web survey completed by 1940 Norwegian employees aged 20-74 years. The qualitative data consists of analyses of 24 interviews with managers, co-workers of heavy drinking employees, and heavy drinking employees, from various lines of businesses.
1-2% reported alcohol-related full day absence in the last 12 months, and 2% reported partial day absence; 11% reported inefficiency due to drinking the previous day. Analyses of interview data revealed that alcohol-related absence and presenteeism may cause a range of economic and practical problems. Managers reported spending a lot of resources and effort on single cases. In addition, the results showed how the presence of a heavy drinking employee may have a negative impact on the broader psychosocial environment, and cause concern for workplace safety. Due to consideration of the drinker's well-being and fear of negative reactions, problem cases can last for years.
Despite the relatively low prevalence of alcohol-related absence and inefficiency, the study suggest that the alcohol-related problems of a few, or only one, employee may still have substantial and far-reaching negative consequences for the workplace.
During the decade 1980 to 1990, 3,500 persons in Norway, under 30 years of age lost their mother or father as a result of an alcohol-related disease. Many of these persons were small children. The article presents research based on linkage of data from the population census of 1980, causes of death and the population register. The results show large regional differences in the rates of children who lost a parent due to misuse of alcohol. Even larger differences were observed between the different districts within the city of Oslo. Differences in registered sales and the consumption of illicitly distilled alcohol both help to explain the regional differences between counties.
Few studies have examined alcohol-related sickness absence among young employees, although young adults are known to drink quite heavily. There are substantial differences in drinking patterns between men and women, yet gender differences have rarely been the main focus in research on alcohol-related sickness absence. Thus the present paper aims to examine gender differences in the prevalence of alcohol-related sickness absence among young employees in Norway, and in the associations between drinking patterns and such absence. Further, to examine whether the prevention paradox applies to alcohol-related sickness absence among both genders.
A sample of employed young adults, 49.7% male (N = 1762, mean age = 28.3; SD = 1.9), was obtained from a general population survey of Norwegians. Self-reported measures on alcohol-related sickness absence and various drinking measures were applied.
Men reported absence from work due to drinking almost twice as often as women. There was a statistically significant gender difference in the drinking-absence association only for one of the three alcohol measures, indicating a stronger relationship among women. The heaviest drinkers (about 6% of the sample) reported a disproportionally large share of alcohol-related sickness absence (19%), yet the vast majority of such absence was found among the moderate drinkers (81%).
Alcohol-related sickness absence is more common among men than women. This gender difference may reflect differences in drinking habits rather than the likelihood of being absent after drinking. The results indicate that the prevention paradox applies to alcohol-related sickness absence among young employees of both genders.
The impact of alcohol consumption, drinking pattern and drinking context on involvement in alcohol-related violence was assessed in a survey of 2711 Norwegian adults. Having taken part in a fight while influenced by alcohol and having been injured by an intoxicated person during the past year was reported by 3% and 2.4% of the respondents, respectively. Involvement in alcohol-related violence was most often reported among younger people, among single people, and it was positively associated with alcohol consumption, frequency of intoxication and frequency of visiting public drinking places. Both frequency of intoxication and overall alcohol consumption were positively associated with the probability of having been in a fight while intoxicated. Frequency of visits to public drinking places was significantly associated with the risk of being injured by an intoxicated person, also when own drinking pattern was controlled for. The results also indicated that the more often drinking takes place in public drinking places, the less is the impact of intoxication on the probability of getting into a fight.
The association between alcohol consumption and hip fracture differed by gender: Men aged 30-59 years drinking frequently or 14+ gl/week had higher risk than moderate drinkers. No significant association was seen in older men. Women not drinking alcohol had higher risk than those drinking moderately both regarding frequency and amount.
We aimed to examine alcohol consumption and risk of hip fracture according to age and gender in the population-based Cohort of Norway (1994-2003).
Socio-demographics, lifestyle, and health were self-reported and weight and height were measured in 70,568 men and 71,357 women =?30 years. Information on subsequent hip fractures was retrieved from hospitals' electronic patient registries during 1994-2013. Frequency of alcohol consumption was categorized: never/seldom, moderate (=?2-3 times/week), or frequent (=?4 times/week), and amount as number of glasses per week: 0, 1-6, 7-13, 14-27, and 28+. Type of alcohol (wine vs. beer/hard liquor) was also examined. Cox's proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) stratified on gender and baseline age