Blood pressure level and risk of major cardiovascular events and all-cause of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment: an observational study from the Swedish National Diabetes Register.
A high mean-HbA1c value 3-15?months after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in childhood is related to metabolic control, macroalbuminuria, and retinopathy in early adulthood--a pilot study using two nation-wide population based quality registries.
Intensive treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes delays the onset of long-term complications.
On the basis of the information from two nation-wide quality registers, we investigated to which extent HbA1c values 3-15?months after diagnosis in childhood are related to metabolic control, albuminuria, and retinopathy in early adulthood.
In Sweden, physicians register all children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Swedish Pediatric Quality Registry. After 18?yr of age, people with diabetes are followed by the Swedish National Diabetes Register. We identified 1543 children and adolescents with a mean age of 13.9?yr at diagnosis and a mean duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus of 7.1?yr.
Children and adolescents with poor metabolic control (mean HbA1c = 70?mmol/mol (8.6 %)) adjacent to diagnosis had a significantly higher mean HbA1c value years later as adults than did patients with a good metabolic control [
A prospective study of normoalbuminuric diabetic patients was performed between 1997 and 2002 on 4097 type 1 and 6513 type 2 diabetic patients from the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR); mean study period, 4.6 years. The strongest independent baseline risk factors for the development of microalbuminuria (20-200 microg/min) were elevated HbA(1c) and diabetes duration in both types 1 and 2 diabetic patients. Other risk factors were high BMI, elevated systolic and diastolic BP in type 2 patients, and antihypertensive therapy in type 1 patients. A subsequent larger cross-sectional study in 2002 showed that established microalbuminuria was independently associated with HbA(1c), diabetes duration, systolic BP, BMI, smoking and triglycerides in types 1 and 2 diabetic patients, and also with HDL-cholesterol in type 2 patients. Relatively few types 1 and 2 patients with microalbuminuria achieved treatment targets of HbA(1c)
OBJECTIVES: To examine if preoperative microalbuminuria (MA) is associated with in increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients undergoing elective cardiothoracic surgery, and if adding information on MA could improve the accuracy of the additive EuroSCORE. METHODS: In a follow-up study we included 962 patients undergoing elective cardiothoracic surgery from 1 April 2005 to 30 September 2007 at our department. MA (urine albumin/creatinine ratio between 2.5-25 mg/mmol) was assessed in a morning spot-urine sample. We used population-based medical registries for 30-day follow-up and compared the length of stay and adverse outcomes including (i) all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or atrial fibrillation, (ii) surgical reintervention, renal insufficiency, sternal wound infection, or septicaemia among patients with and without MA. RESULTS: MA was found in 180 (18.7%) patients. The risk of both combined outcomes (adjusted odds ratios (ORs): 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-1.30) and 1.18 (95% CI: 0.79-1.75), respectively) and most individual outcomes did not differ between the micro- and normoalbuminuric patients. The patients with MA and an additive EuroSCORE of 5 had a significantly prolonged median length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (0.15 days [95% CI: 0.04-0.26]) and total hospital stay (0.5 days [95% CI: 0.04-0.96]). Patients with MA had a higher risk of postoperative septicaemia (OR: 12.1 [95% CI: 3.2-45.9]). Area under receiver operating characteristics curves of the EuroSCORE with regard to 30-day mortality was 0.86 both with and without MA. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative MA in patients undergoing elective cardiothoracic surgery was not associated with most early adverse outcomes. However, risk of septicaemia was higher and patients with MA also had a marginally longer length of ICU and hospital stay. Information on preoperative MA did not improve the accuracy of the additive EuroSCORE.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is more frequent in patients with diabetes than in the general population. However, characteristics contributing to AF risk in diabetes remain speculative.
Observational study of 83,162 patients with type 2 diabetes, aged 30-79 years, with no baseline AF, 17% had history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 3.3% history of congestive heart failure (CHF), followed up for development of AF during mean 6.8 years from 2005-2007 to 2012. A subgroup of 67,780 patients without history of CVD or CHF was also analysed.
Using Cox regression, cardiovascular risk factors associated with risk for AF were updated mean BMI (HR 1.31 per 5 kg/m(2)) or obesity (HR 1.51), updated mean systolic BP (SBP; HR 1.13 per 10 mmHg) or hypertension (HR 1.71), and cumulative microalbuminuria (HR 1.21), p?
To determine the effect of different stages of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and sex on the excess and absolute morbidity of coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in order to distinguish different cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles in people with T1D.
The study included 4410 people with T1D from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study (FinnDiane), divided by DN status, and a control population of 12?434 people without diabetes. CVD events were identified from the Finnish nationwide health registries. Cumulative incidences for CAD and stroke were calculated and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated between participants with T1D and the control group, stratified by DN status and sex.
There were 487 incident CADs and 290 strokes at the end of 2014 (median follow-up 12.9 years). The cumulative incidence rates of CAD and stroke were similar in men and women within different nephropathy groups. The SIR for CAD was 7.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.9-8.2), 17.2 (95% CI 14.9-19.5) in women and 5.3 (95% CI 4.7-5.9) in men. The women-to-men ratio of SIR increased by nephropathy group: 3.3, 3.7, 5.3 and 6.8 in the normo-, micro- and macroalbuminuria and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) groups, respectively. The SIR for stroke was 5.0 (95% CI 4.3-5.5), similar in men and women. The women-to-men ratio of SIR for stroke was 0.8, 1.3, 1.6 and 1.7, in the normo-, micro- and macroalbuminuria and ESRD groups, respectively. The SIR in participants with normoalbuminuria and an estimated glomerular filtration rate?=90?mL/min/1.73?m2 was 3.5 (95% CI 2.5-4.5) for CAD and 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.3) for stroke.
Although the excess CVD risk is several-fold greater in women compared to men, the absolute CVD risk in men and women was equal when nephropathy was taken into account. Even participants with normoalbuminuria and normal kidney function were found to have an excess CVD risk compared with the control group without diabetes.
We assessed blood pressure (BP) trends in patients with type 2 diabetes from a national diabetes register using three cross-sectional samples (aged 30?85 years) in 2005, 2007 and 2009, and in patients from 2005 followed individually until 2009. The prevalence of hypertension was 87% among all 180 369 patients in 2009, although lower in subgroups with ages 30?39, 40?49 and 50?59 years: 40%, 60% and 77%. In the three cross-sectional surveys, mean BP decreased (141/77?136/76 mmHg), uncontrolled BP? 140/90 mmHg decreased (58?46%), and antihypertensive drug treatment (AHT) increased (73?81%). Comparatively in 79 185 patients followed individually for 5 years, mean BP decreased (141/77?137/75 mmHg), uncontrolled BP ?140/90 mmHg decreased (58?47%) and AHT increased (73?82%). Independent predictors of BP decrease were BMI decrease (stronger) and increase in AHT. AHT occurred among 81% of all patients in 2009. In 57 645 patients on AHT followed individually, mean BP decreased (143/77?138/75 mmHg) and uncontrolled BP ?140/90 mmHg decreased (63?50%). Among 5164 patients with nephropathy on AHT followed individually, BP