To determine the impact of a provincial choking prevention program (CPP) on the incidence of aerodigestive foreign body cases among children.
The CPP, including posters, pamphlets, an informative video, and annual participation in the Parents & Kids Fair, was launched throughout Quebec in October 1999. The incidence rates of aerodigestive foreign body cases prior to implementation (during 1997-1998) and subsequently (2000-2002) within the province and our tertiary care centre (Sainte-Justine Hospital) were compared by estimating incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).
No significant changes in the incidence of aerodigestive foreign body cases after program implementation were observed in our hospital (age-adjusted IRR 0.92, 95% CI 0.79-1.07). The provincial rates were higher after program implementation (age-adjusted IRR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05-1.25).
To influence choking prevention habits, modifications to the campaign are required. Strategies are discussed.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been associated with coronary mortality. Yet, data about the association between COPD and acute myocardial infarction (MI) remain scarce. We aimed to study airway obstruction as a predictor of MI and coronary mortality among 5576 Finnish adults who participated in a national health examination survey between 1978 and 1980. Subjects underwent spirometry, had all necessary data, showed no indications of cardiovascular disease at baseline, and were followed up through record linkage with national registers through 2011. The primary outcome consisted of a major coronary event-that is, hospitalization for MI or coronary death, whichever occurred first. We specified obstruction using the lower limit of normal categorization. Through multivariate analysis adjusted for potential confounding factors for coronary heart disease, hazard ratios (HRs) (with the 95% confidence intervals in parentheses) of a major coronary event, MI, and coronary death reached 1.06 (0.79-1.42), 0.84 (0.54-1.31), and 1.40 (1.04-1.88), respectively, in those with obstruction compared to others. However, in women aged 30-49 obstruction appeared to predict a major coronary event, where the adjusted HR reached 4.21 (1.73-10.28). In conclusion, obstruction appears to predict a major coronary event in younger women only, whereas obstruction closely associates with the risk of coronary death independent of sex and age.
Smoking-related airflow obstruction can develop with or without emphysema. Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to diminish the risk of centrilobular emphysema caused by smoking. Our aim was to study the influence of total energy and nutrient (protein, fat, carbohydrate and alcohol) intake on smoking-related emphysema. Lung function and nutrient intake including alcohol consumption were recorded at age of 68 years in 478 men as part of the population study 'Men Born in 1914' in Malmö, Sweden. In nonsmokers (n = 88) and ex-smokers (n = 223), there were no significant relationships between energy and nutrient intake and lung function. In smokers (n = 167), men in the highest and lowest quintile of total lung capacity (TLC) differed in alcohol intake (p = 0.004) but not in intake of total energy or other nutrients. In smokers with a forced expiratory volume in 1 s/vital capacity ratio of below 70% (n = 81), alcohol intake was positively correlated with TLC (r = 0.31; p = 0.006) after adjustment for smoking and body mass index. We conclude that in men with smoking-related airway obstruction, emphysema defined as large TLC was associated with high alcohol consumption but not with the intake of total energy or other nutrients.
Lung Clearance Index (LCI) provides an overall measurement of ventilation inhomogeneity. This population-based study examines whether LCI predicts pulmonary obstruction and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) events over a long-term follow-up. Multiple breath nitrogen washout and spirometry were performed in 674 men from the cohort "Men born in 1914" at age 55 years. Subjects were classified into quartiles (Q) of LCI and according to LCI above and below upper limit of normal (ULN). Incidence of COPD events (COPD hospitalisations or COPD-related deaths) were monitored over the remaining life span of the men, by linkage with national hospital registers. In addition, development of pulmonary obstruction (i.e., FEV1/vital capacity below lower limit of normal (LLN)) was studied in 387 men who were re-examined with spirometry at 68 years of age. Over 44 years of follow-up, there were 85 incident COPD events. Hazards ratios (HRs) for COPD across quartiles of LCI were: Q1 1.00 (reference), Q2 1.30 (95% confidence interval: 0.61-2.74), Q3 1.97 (0.97-3.98) and Q4 3.99 (2.06-7.71) (p value for trend
We describe four children who died of suffocation by rubber balloons in Canada between 1983 and 1988. In the United States, at least 121 children have died in a similar manner in the 15 years between 1973 and 1988 according to a report by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Although the highest mortality occurred among infants, 30 (25%) of the 121 deaths occurred in children 6 years of age or older. Balloons account for 43% of the approximately 15 childhood deaths related to children's products that are documented each year by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. Toy rubber balloons are thus the leading cause of pediatric choking deaths from children's products. Preventive efforts should be directed toward a ban on this type of balloon and the development of safer alternatives. Meanwhile, public information campaigns should alert parents, physicians, and policymakers to the dangers of toy rubber balloons.
The increase in asthma prevalence until 1990 has been well described. Thereafter, time trends are poorly known, due to the low number of high quality studies. The preferred method for studying time trends in prevalence is repeated surveys of similar populations. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of asthma symptoms and their major determinants, rhinitis and smoking, in Swedish young adults in 1990 and 2008.
In 1990 the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) studied respiratory symptoms, asthma, rhinitis and smoking in a population-based sample (86% participation) in Sweden. In 2008 the same symptom questions were included in the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) survey (60% participation). Smoking questions were however differently worded. The regions (Gothenburg, Uppsala, Umeå) and age interval (20-44 years) surveyed both in 1990 (n?=?8,982) and 2008 (n?=?9,156) were analysed.
The prevalence of any wheeze last 12 months decreased from 20% to 16% (p
Relevant information on the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its trends is scarce. In the present study, we compare the prevalence rates and potential determinants of COPD in two national population samples that were surveyed 20 yrs apart. In 1978-1980, a sample of 8,000 people was surveyed; subjects were representative of the Finnish population and were aged =30 yrs. Among those aged 30-74 yrs, acceptable spirometry was obtained from 6,364 (87%) subjects. In a similar survey conducted in 2000-2001, comparable spirometry was obtained from 5,495 (80%) participants. Airway obstruction was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity below the lower limit of normal and staged for severity on the basis of FEV(1) % predicted. The age-adjusted prevalence rates of obstruction (stages I-IV) were rather similar in both surveys in males (4.7 versus 4.3%; p = 0.25), but were almost significantly higher in females in the later survey (2.2 versus 3.1%; p = 0.06). The rates of COPD stage II or higher were 3.9% in 1978-1980, and 3.6% in 2000-2001 (p = 0.36) for males, and 1.4 and 1.5% (p = 0.93), respectively, for females. In conclusion, no significant difference was found in the prevalence of COPD stages II-IV between similar population based surveys performed 20 yrs apart. Since COPD is mostly mild or moderate there is a strong case for early prevention.
Comment In: Eur Respir J. 2010 Oct;36(4):718-920889460
Comment In: Eur Respir J. 2010 Oct;36(4):720-120889461
OBJECTIVE: To present recent data on the occurrence of non-malignant occupational airway diseases in Germany and to compare mainly affected occupations of obstructive airway diseases caused by allergens and irritants with available surveillance data from other countries. METHODS: Sources of German data were statistics for the year 2003 of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and of the federation of statutory accident insurance institutions for the industrial sector. RESULTS: Confirmed cases of non-malignant occupational respiratory diseases in Germany are mainly benign asbestos-associated diseases (occupational disease no. 4103: 1,975 cases), silicosis/coal worker's pneumoconiosis (occupational disease no. 4101: 1,158 cases), obstructive airway diseases due to allergens (occupational disease no. 4301: 935 cases), chronic obstructive bronchitis and/or emphysema in hard coal miners (occupational disease no. 4111: 414 cases), obstructive airway diseases due to irritants and toxic agents (occupational disease no. 4302: 181 cases), diseases caused by ionising radiation (171 cases), diseases due to isocyanates (occupational disease no. 1315: 55 cases), and 22 cases of other rare occupational lung and airway diseases. Miners, bakers, chemical workers, hairdressers and health care workers are mostly affected. Bakers were also frequently affected by occupational asthma in Finland, France, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the Piedmont region in Italy, South Africa, and New Zealand. Further, high frequencies of occupational asthma were reported for health care workers in France, Italy, New Jersey, Michigan, and South Africa. CONCLUSION: Despite completely different legal definitions and regulations, comparably high numbers of occupational obstructive diseases in western countries require better primary and secondary prevention in industries with high incidence, especially in bakeries, the health care sector, farming, and mining. Furthermore, there is a urgent need for harmonization of recognition and compensation systems for occupational diseases as well as of respective preventive strategies within the European Union.