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Economic evaluation of the benefits of reducing acute cardiorespiratory morbidity associated with air pollution.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186975
Source
Environ Health. 2002 Dec 18;1(1):7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-18-2002
Author
David M Stieb
Paul De Civita
F Reed Johnson
Matthew P Manary
Aslam H Anis
Robert C Beveridge
Stan Judek
Author Affiliation
Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada. dave_stieb@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Environ Health. 2002 Dec 18;1(1):7
Date
Dec-18-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution - economics - prevention & control
Attitude to Health
Canada
Cardiovascular Diseases - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Environmental Exposure - economics - prevention & control
Episode of Care
Hospitalization - economics
Humans
Models, Econometric
Monte Carlo Method
Respiratory Tract Diseases - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
Few assessments of the costs and benefits of reducing acute cardiorespiratory morbidity related to air pollution have employed a comprehensive, explicit approach to capturing the full societal value of reduced morbidity.
We used empirical data on the duration and severity of episodes of cardiorespiratory disease as inputs to complementary models of cost of treatment, lost productivity, and willingness to pay to avoid acute cardiorespiratory morbidity outcomes linked to air pollution in epidemiological studies. A Monte Carlo estimation procedure was utilized to propagate uncertainty in key inputs and model parameters.
Valuation estimates ranged from 13 dollars (1997, Canadian) (95% confidence interval, 0-28 dollars) for avoidance of an acute respiratory symptom day to 5,200 dollars (4,000 dollars-6,400 dollars) for avoidance of a cardiac hospital admission. Cost of treatment accounted for the majority of the overall value of cardiac and respiratory hospital admissions as well as cardiac emergency department visits, while lost productivity generally represented a small proportion of overall value. Valuation estimates for days of restricted activity, asthma symptoms and acute respiratory symptoms were sensitive to alternative assumptions about level of activity restriction. As an example of the application of these values, we estimated that the observed decrease in particulate sulfate concentrations in Toronto between 1984 and 1999 resulted in annual benefits of 1.4 million dollars (95% confidence interval 0.91-1.8 million dollars) in relation to reduced emergency department visits and hospital admissions for cardiorespiratory disease.
Our approach to estimating the value of avoiding a range of acute morbidity effects of air pollution addresses a number of limitations of the current literature, and is applicable to future assessments of the benefits of improving air quality.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12537591 View in PubMed
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Economic transition and environmental sustainability: effects of economic restructuring on air pollution in the Russian Federation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185126
Source
J Environ Manage. 2003 Jun;68(2):141-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2003
Author
Aleg Cherp
Irina Kopteva
Ruben Mnatsakanian
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Nador u. 9, Budapest H-1051, Hungary. cherpa@ceu.hu
Source
J Environ Manage. 2003 Jun;68(2):141-51
Date
Jun-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - economics - prevention & control
Commerce
Energy-Generating Resources
Humans
Industry
Models, Economic
Russia
Social Conditions
Transportation
Vehicle Emissions
Abstract
Economic liberalization in former socialist countries may have various implications for their environmental sustainability. Positive effects of this process are potentially associated with improved efficiency, investments into cleaner technologies, responsiveness to environmentally aware markets, and ending subsidies to heavy industries. On the other hand, market liberalization may result in weaker environmental controls, economic instabilities distracting attention from environmental issues, and increasing orientation towards profit-making leading to more intensive exploitation of natural resources. In addition, trade liberalization may result in shifts towards more pollution and resource-intensive industries. This article seeks to quantify effects of economic restructuring in Russia on air pollution from productive economic sectors in the 1990s. Air pollution in Russia had significantly declined in 1991-1999, however, this decline was largely due to economic decline, as the overall pollution intensity of the economy had decreased only slightly. The factors that affected the pollution intensity are: (1) a decrease in the combined share of industrial and transport activities in the economy and (2) changing pollution intensities of the industrial and transport sectors. The pollution intensity of the Russian industry had remained relatively stable during the 1990s. This was the result of the two opposite and mutually canceling trends: (a) increasing shares of pollution-intensive branches such as metal smelting and oil production vs. less pollution intensive manufacturing and (b) decline in pollution intensities within the industrial branches. The article proposes a methodology by which the contribution of both factors to the overall pollution intensity of the industrial sector can be quantified. The pollution intensity of the Russian transport sector appears to have declined in the first half of the 1990s and increased in the second half. The most recent trend can be explained by a rising proportion of private motorcars used for transportation of people and goods instead of traditional rail and other public transport. The findings of the paper demonstrate that shifts towards more pollution-, resource- and energy-intensive industries as a result of economic liberalization emerges as a significant negative factor of the process of economic transition threatening sustainability of emerging market economies. A research agenda to further investigate these impacts is proposed.
PubMed ID
12781754 View in PubMed
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Policy integration as a success factor for emissions trading.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95828
Source
Environ Manage. 2004 Jun;33(6):765-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2004
Author
Michaelowa Axel
Author Affiliation
Programme International Climate Policy, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA), Neuer Jungfernstieg 21 20347, Hamburg, Germany. a-michaelowa@hwwa.de
Source
Environ Manage. 2004 Jun;33(6):765-75
Date
Jun-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - economics - prevention & control
Environment
Europe
Greenhouse Effect
Industry
Negotiating
Policy Making
Taxes
Abstract
Emissions trading will not be able to become the single instrument of a national climate policy because of costs for monitoring of greenhouse gases and transfers of allowances. Thus, it is important to assess optimal ways of integrating emissions trading into national climate policy mixes, thus leading to a more efficient policy, especially by allowing the use of transboundary transactions. The implemented trading systems of the UK and Denmark, the agreed EU one, and the planned ones of Norway are used as case studies. In the UK, the introduction of an energy tax on industry was the catalyst that led to the development of emissions trading, voluntary agreements, and two subsidy programs. However, in Denmark trading was limited in scope and not integrated with the successful emission tax. The EU and Norwegian trading schemes both have a large scope and integrate international transfers; the former is integrated with other instruments to avoid free riding. Policy integration will thus enhance the efficiency improvements that emissions trading can introduce.
PubMed ID
15517677 View in PubMed
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