Among multiple and various functions of the body, motor activity is essential. But it is little studied in schoolchildren. The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of industrial pollution of the ambient air on the motor activity in old schoolchildren. At school, the motor activity of 8th-, 10th-, and 11th-form schoolchildren was found to decrease with age, the dynamics of its decrease was determined by not only sexual differences of pupils, but also by the technogenic ambient air pollutions.
Many studies have indicated that weather can trigger headache. Here we propose a new methodological approach to assess the relationship between weather, ambient air pollution, and emergency department (ED) visits for this condition.
To examine the associations between ED visits for headache and selected meteorological and air pollution factors.
A hierarchical clusters design was used to study 10,497 ED visits for headache (ICD-9: 784) that occurred at a Montreal hospital between 1997 and 2002. The generalized linear mixed models technique was applied to create Poisson models for the clustered counts of visits for headache.
Statistically significant positive associations were observed between the number of ED visits for headache and the atmospheric pressure for all and for female visits for 1-day and 2-day lagged exposures. The percentage increase in daily ED female visits was 4.1% (95% CI: 2.0, 6.2), 3.4% (95% CI: 1.4, 5.6), and 2.2% (95% CI: 1.4, 5.6) for current day, 1-day and 2-day lagged exposure to SO(2), respectively, for an increase of an interquartile range (IQR) of 2.4 ppb. The percentage increase was also statistically significant for current day and 1-day lagged exposure to NO(2) and CO for all and for female visits.
Presented findings provide support for the hypothesis that ED visits for headache are correlated to weather conditions and ambient air pollution - to atmospheric pressure and exposure to SO(2), NO(2), CO, and PM(2.5). An increase in levels of these factors is associated with an increase in the number of ED visits for headache.
The article presents results of descriptive epidemiologic study of bronchial asthma among children in Moscow where the incidence is steadily growing. Since 1947 average prevalence of bronchial asthma in Moscow has increased over 7 times, being considerably uneven over the territory. The average prevalence equals 6.9/1,000, but on 56% of the territory it is double higher. Sites of the higher occurrence are localized in the living area situated near the Zoo, horse races, perfume factory and other enterprises, near major automobile roads. Statistic analysis of the prevalence if correlated with concentrations of pollutants in the air proved that nitrogen oxides induce 60% of the cases. No differences in some risk factors (heredity, living conditions, etc.) were revealed by the poll among families of the ailing children residing in the districts with variable air pollution. The results helped to restructure pediatric allergologic service in the city.
Infectious viruses and bacteria can trigger multiple sclerosis (MS) exacerbations. Seasonally changing concentrations of ambient air pollutants are known to predispose to transmissible infections, to induce systemic immune responses and to enhance existing peripheral inflammation. Ambient air quality and monthly MS relapse occurrence in south-western Finland were compared by multivariate logistic regression. The odds ratio of the risk of a relapse onset was over fourfold (4.143, p
Time series analysis is the most commonly used technique for assessing the association between counts of health events over time and exposure to ambient air pollution. Recently, case-crossover analysis has been proposed as an alternative analytical approach. While each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages, there remains considerable uncertainty as to which statistical methodology is preferable for evaluating data of this type.
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of different variations of these two procedures using computer simulation. Hospital admission data were generated under realistic models with known parameters permitting estimates based on time series and case-crossover analyses to be compared with these known values.
While accurate estimates can be achieved with both methods, both methods require some decisions to be made by the researcher during the course of the analysis. With time series analysis, it is necessary to choose the time span in the LOESS smoothing process, or degrees of freedom when using natural cubic splines. For case-crossover studies using either uni- or bi-directional control selection strategies, the choice of time intervals needs to be made.
We prefer the times series approach because the best estimates of risk that can be obtained with time series analysis are more precise than the best estimates based on case-crossover analysis.
Comment In: Int J Epidemiol. 2003 Dec;32(6):107114681276
Studies of the associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and emergency room use are reviewed, including studies of air pollution episodes, time-series analyses, and cross-sectional analyses. These studies encompass a variety of methods of analysis and levels of air quality. Findings from all three types of studies were generally consistent in that almost all of the studies reviewed found statistically significant associations between hospital use and air pollution; this unanimity may have resulted in part from publication bias. These associations were characterized by elasticities of the order of 0.20; i.e., a 100% change in air pollution was associated with a change in hospital use of about 20%, for specific diagnoses. Respiratory diagnoses were emphasized by most studies; cardiac diagnoses were included in five of them. The air pollutants most often associated with changes in hospital use were particulate matter, sulfur oxides, and oxidants. Apart from the major air pollution episodes, there was no obvious link between air pollution level and the significance or magnitudes of the associations. Long-term indicators of hospitalization appeared to also be influenced by medical care supply factors, including the numbers of beds and physicians per capita. These nonpathological causal factors could also have influenced the findings of the time-series studies by introducing extraneous factors in the patterns of admissions. Although consistent associations have been shown between hospital use and air pollution, further research is required to distinguish among potentially responsible pollutants and to deduce specific dose-response relationships of general utility.
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To assess the short term association between air pollution and mortality in different zones of an industrial city. An intra-urban study design is used to test the hypothesis that socioeconomic characteristics modify the acute health effects of ambient air pollution exposure.
The City of Hamilton, Canada, was divided into five zones based on proximity to fixed site air pollution monitors. Within each zone, daily counts of non-trauma mortality and air pollution estimates were combined. Generalised linear models (GLMs) were used to test mortality associations with sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) and with particulate air pollution measured by the coefficient of haze (CoH).
Increased mortality was associated with air pollution exposure in a citywide model and in intra-urban zones with lower socioeconomic characteristics. Low educational attainment and high manufacturing employment in the zones significantly and positively modified the acute mortality effects of air pollution exposure.
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Short-term exposure to high levels of air pollution can increase stroke risk. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for stroke in a setting where pollutant levels are rather low. We also addressed methodological issues in evaluating the short-term effects of air pollution.
Daily admissions of ischemic (n = 11,267) and hemorrhagic (n =1,681) stroke were obtained from a Swedish quality register for stroke, Riks-Stroke. We used two types of exposure data: (1) daily measured background levels of ozone, temperature and particles with a diameter
We conducted a case-control study of adulthood asthma and point-source respirable particulate air pollution with asthma-diagnosed case patients (n = 3717) and gastroenteritis-diagnosed control patients (n = 4129) to determine effects of particulate air pollution on public health.
We used hospitalization data from Buffalo, NY, neighborhoods for a 5-year period (1996 through 2000), geographic information systems techniques, the Diggle method, and statistical analysis to compare the locations of case patients and control patients in terms of proximity to different known pollution sources in the study area.
We found a clustering of asthma cases in close proximity to the Peace Bridge Complex and the freeways and a dose-response relationship indicating a decreased risk of asthma prevalence the farther an individual resides from the source of exposure.
These findings provide a basis for the development of new hypotheses relating to the spatial distribution of asthma prevalence and morbidity in this community.
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