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Absenteeism and respiratory disease among children and adults in Helsinki in relation to low-level air pollution and temperature.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature228944
Source
Environ Res. 1990 Jun;52(1):34-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1990
Author
A. Pönkä
Author Affiliation
Helsinki City Health Department, Finland.
Source
Environ Res. 1990 Jun;52(1):34-46
Date
Jun-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Cold Temperature
Epidemiologic Methods
Finland
Humans
Infant
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Urban health
Abstract
The weekly changes in ambient sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and temperature were compared with the figures for respiratory infection in children and adults and for absenteeism from day-care centers (DCC), schools, and workplaces during a 1-year period in Helsinki. The annual average level of sulfur dioxide was 21 micrograms/m3 and of nitrogen dioxide 47 micrograms/m3; the average temperature was +3.1 degrees C. The levels of these pollutants and the temperature were significantly correlated with the number of upper respiratory infections reported from health centers. Low temperature also correlated with increased frequency of acute tonsillitis, of lower respiratory tract infection among DCC children, and of absenteeism from day-care centers, schools and workplaces. Furthermore, a significant association was found between levels of sulfur dioxide and absenteeism. After statistical standardization for temperature, no other correlations were observed apart from that between high levels of sulfur dioxide and numbers of upper respiratory tract infections diagnosed at health centers (P = 0.04). When the concentrations of sulfur dioxide were above the mean, the frequency of the upper respiratory tract infections was 15% higher than that during the periods of low concentration. The relative importance of the effects of low-level air pollution and low temperature on health is difficult to assess.
PubMed ID
2351127 View in PubMed
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Acute effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions: results from APHEA 2 project. Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15434
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 1):1860-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-15-2001
Author
R W Atkinson
H R Anderson
J. Sunyer
J. Ayres
M. Baccini
J M Vonk
A. Boumghar
F. Forastiere
B. Forsberg
G. Touloumi
J. Schwartz
K. Katsouyanni
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom. atkinson@sghms.ac.uk
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 1):1860-6
Date
Nov-15-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Emergencies
England - epidemiology
France - epidemiology
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Italy - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Netherlands - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Particle Size
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data - trends
Population Surveillance
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - etiology
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasons
Spain - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data - trends
Weather
Abstract
The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-respiratory disease (65+ yr) controlling for environmental factors and temporal patterns were investigated. Summary PM(10) effect estimates (percentage change in mean number of daily admissions per 10 microg/m(3) increase) were asthma (0-14 yr) 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.3), asthma (15-64 yr) 1.1% (0.3, 1.8), and COPD plus asthma and all-respiratory (65+ yr) 1.0% (0.4, 1.5) and 0.9% (0.6, 1.3). The combined estimates for Black Smoke tended to be smaller and less precisely estimated than for PM(10). Variability in the sizes of the PM(10) effect estimates between cities was also investigated. In the 65+ groups PM(10) estimates were positively associated with annual mean concentrations of ozone in the cities. For asthma admissions (0-14 yr) a number of city-specific factors, including smoking prevalence, explained some of their variability. This study confirms that particle concentrations in European cities are positively associated with increased numbers of admissions for respiratory diseases and that some of the variation in PM(10) effect estimates between cities can be explained by city characteristics.
PubMed ID
11734437 View in PubMed
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[Adaptive capacities of children with different number of congenital morphogenetic variants].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127921
Source
Gig Sanit. 2011 Nov-Dec;(6):69-73
Publication Type
Article
Author
E N Kotysheva
M Iu Bolotskaia
Source
Gig Sanit. 2011 Nov-Dec;(6):69-73
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological - drug effects - genetics
Adaptation, Psychological - drug effects
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Autonomic Nervous System - drug effects - growth & development - physiology
Child
Environmental monitoring
Genetic Variation
Humans
Metallurgy
Morphogenesis - drug effects - genetics
Russia
Urban Population
Abstract
Adaptive capacities were studied in 6-7-year-ol apparently healthy children in relation to the number of congenital morphogenetic variants (CMVs). The most markedly reduced adaptive capacities were revealed in children with 5 CMVs or more.
PubMed ID
22250398 View in PubMed
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Adjusting for temporal variation in the analysis of parallel time series of health and environmental variables.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205764
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1998 Apr-Jun;8(2):129-44
Publication Type
Article
Author
S. Cakmak
R. Burnett
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. scakmak@ehd.hwc.ca
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1998 Apr-Jun;8(2):129-44
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Hospitalization
Humans
Lung Diseases - etiology
Models, Statistical
Ontario
Ozone - adverse effects
Public Health
Temperature
Time Factors
Abstract
Time series of daily administrative cardio-respiratory health and environmental information have been extensively used to assess the potential public health impact of ambient air pollution. Both series are subject to strong but unrelated temporal cycles. These cycles must be removed from the time series prior to examining the role air pollution plays in exacerbating cardio-respiratory disease. In this paper, we examine a number of methods of temporal filtering that have been proposed to eliminate such temporal effects. The techniques are illustrated by linking the number of daily admissions to hospital for respiratory diseases in Toronto, Canada for the 11 year period 1981 to 1991 with daily concentrations of ambient ozone. The ozone-hospitalization relationship was found to be highly sensitive to the length of temporal cycle removed from the admission time series, and to day of the week effects, ranging from a relative risk of 0.874 if long wave cycles were not removed at all to 1.020 for models which removed at least cycles greater than or equal to one month based on the interquartile pollutant range. The specific statistical method of adjustment was not a critical factor. The association was not as sensitive to removal of cycles less than one month, except that negative autocorrelation increased for series in which cycles of one week or less were removed. We recommend three criteria in selecting the degree of smoothing in the outcome: removal of temporal cycles, minimizing autocorrelation and optimizing goodness of fit. The association between ambient ozone levels and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases was also sensitive to the season of examination, with weaker associations observed outside the summer months.
PubMed ID
9577746 View in PubMed
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Airborne biogenic particles in the snow of the cities of the Russian Far East as potential allergic compounds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262711
Source
J Immunol Res. 2014;2014:141378
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Kirill S Golokhvast
Source
J Immunol Res. 2014;2014:141378
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Allergens - adverse effects - analysis
Animals
Cities
Environmental monitoring
Far East
Humans
Particulate Matter - adverse effects - analysis
Risk factors
Russia
Snow
Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of airborne biogenic particles (1 mkm-1 mm) found in the snow in several cities of the Russian Far East during 2010-2013. The most common was vegetational terraneous detritus (fragments of tree and grass leaves) followed by animal hair, small insects and their fragments, microorganisms of aeroplankton, and equivocal biological garbage. Specific components were found in samples from locations close to bodies of water such as fragments of algae and mollusc shells and, marine invertebrates (needles of sea urchins and shell debris of arthropods). In most locations across the Far East (Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, and Ussuriysk), the content of biogenic particles collected in the winter did not exceed 10% of the total particulate matter, with the exception of Birobidzhan and the nature reserve Bastak, where it made up to 20%. Most of all biogenic compounds should be allergic: hair, fragments of tree and grass leaves, insects, and microorganisms.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25140327 View in PubMed
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Airborne endotoxin in different background environments and seasons.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81441
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006;13(1):81-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Madsen Anne Mette
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Occupational Health, Lerso Parkalle 105 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. amm@ami.dk
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006;13(1):81-6
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Denmark
Endotoxins - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Humans
Occupational Diseases - etiology - prevention & control
Occupational Exposure
Occupational Health
Reference Standards
Reference Values
Respiratory Tract Diseases - etiology - prevention & control
Seasons
Abstract
Endotoxin is a cell wall component from Gram-negative bacteria, and inhaled endotoxin contributes significantly to the induction of airway inflammation and dysfunction. Background levels of endotoxin have not yet been extensively described. In this study, airborne endotoxin was measured with a standardized protocol in 5 types of background environment (169 samples) in Denmark from October to May. Endotoxin levels in a greenhouse (median = 13.2 EU/m3) were significantly higher than in the other environments. The air from biofuel plants (median = 5.3 EU/m3), the air on congested streets (median = 4.4 EU/m3) and on an agricultural field (median = 2.9 EU/m3) had higher endotoxin contents than the air in industrial areas (median = 1.3 EU/m3) or in towns (median = 0.33 EU/m3). Levels in industrial areas were significantly higher than in towns. A literature study revealed background levels of endotoxin on different continents between 0.063-410 EU/m3, with median or mean values between 0.063-3.6 EU/m3. Endotoxin concentrations in towns and industrial areas were higher in April and May than in autumn and winter, and were higher in October than in winter. These data of exposure in background environments and of seasonal variation are helpful for public health practitioners, epidemiologists and industrial hygienists.
PubMed ID
16841877 View in PubMed
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Air pollution, aeroallergens and cardiorespiratory emergency department visits in Saint John, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196821
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2000 Sep-Oct;10(5):461-77
Publication Type
Article
Author
D M Stieb
R C Beveridge
J R Brook
M. Smith-Doiron
R T Burnett
R E Dales
S. Beaulieu
S. Judek
A. Mamedov
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON. dave_stieb@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2000 Sep-Oct;10(5):461-77
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Allergens - adverse effects - isolation & purification
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Humans
New Brunswick - epidemiology
Poisson Distribution
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Seasons
Abstract
Existing studies of the association between air pollution, aeroallergens and emergency department (ED) visits have generally examined the effects of a few pollutants or aeroallergens on individual conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study, we considered a wide variety of respiratory and cardiac conditions and an extensive set of pollutants and aeroallergens, and utilized prospectively collected information on possible effect modifiers which would not normally be available from purely administrative data. The association between air pollution, aeroallergens and cardiorespiratory ED visits (n = 19,821) was examined for the period 1992 to 1996 using generalized additive models. ED visit, air pollution and aeroallergen time series were prefiltered using LOESS smoothers to minimize temporal confounding, and a parsimonious model was constructed to control for confounding by weather and day of week. Multipollutant and multi-aeroallergen models were constructed using stepwise procedures and sensitivity analyses were conducted by season, diagnosis, and selected individual characteristics or effect modifiers. In single-pollutant models, positive effects of all pollutants but NO2 and COH were observed on asthma visits, and positive effects on all respiratory diagnosis groups were observed for O3, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, and SO4(2-). Among cardiac conditions, only dysrhythmia visits were positively associated with all measures of particulate matter. In the final year-round multipollutant models, a 20.9% increase in cardiac ED visits was attributed to the combination of O3 (16.0%, 95% CI 2.8-30.9) and SO2 (4.9%, 95%CI 1.7-8.2) at the mean concentration of each pollutant. In the final multipollutant model for respiratory visits, O3 accounted for 3.9% of visits (95% CI 0.8-7.2), and SO2 for 3.7% (95% CI 1.5-6.0), whereas a weak, negative association was observed with NO2. In multi-aeroallergen models of warm season asthma ED visits, Ascomycetes, Alternaria and small round fungal spores accounted for 4.5% (95% CI 1.8-7.4), 4.7% (95% CI 1.0-8.6) and 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.1), respectively, of visits at their mean concentrations, and these effects were not sensitive to adjustment for air pollution effects. In conclusion, we observed a significant influence of the air pollution mix on cardiac and respiratory ED visits. Although in single-pollutant models, positive associations were noted between ED visits and some measures of particulate matter, in multipollutant models, pollutant gases, particularly ozone, exhibited more consistent effects. Aeroallergens were also significantly associated with warm season asthma ED visits.
PubMed ID
11051536 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and daily ED visits for migraine and headache in Edmonton, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150066
Source
Am J Emerg Med. 2009 May;27(4):391-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2009
Author
Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz
David M Stieb
Brian H Rowe
Author Affiliation
Air Health Effects Research Section, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A OK9. mietek_szyszkowicz@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Am J Emerg Med. 2009 May;27(4):391-6
Date
May-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Alberta - epidemiology
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Female
Headache - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Migraine Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Seasons
Weather
Abstract
A variety of environmental factors have been identified as possible triggers for migraine and other headache syndromes.
We analyzed associations between air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits for migraine and headache.
Analysis was based on 56,241 ED visits for migraine and 48,022 ED visits for headache to Edmonton hospitals between 1992 and 2002. A Poisson model of counts hierarchically clustered by day of week, month, and year was applied using generalized linear mixed models. Temperature and relative humidity were included as covariates.
Females accounted for 78.5% of migraine visits and 56.3% of headache visits. An interquartile range (IQR) increase (6.2 microg/m3) in daily average particulate matter of median aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) was associated with increases in visits of 3.3% for migraine (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6-6.0), lagged 2 days, and 3.4% for headache (95% CI: 0.3-6.6), lagged 0 days, among females in the cold season (October-March). PM2.5 was also associated with cold season migraine visits among females at lag 0 and 1 day (P
PubMed ID
19555607 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and daily hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Windsor, Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176397
Source
Can J Public Health. 2005 Jan-Feb;96(1):29-33
Publication Type
Article
Author
Karen Y Fung
Isaac Luginaah
Kevin M Gorey
Greg Webster
Author Affiliation
1 Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4. kfung@uwindsor.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2005 Jan-Feb;96(1):29-33
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Precipitating Factors
Risk
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Weather
Abstract
To examine the role that ambient air pollution plays in exacerbating cardiovascular disease hospitalization in Windsor, Ontario.
The number of daily cardiac hospital admissions was obtained from all Windsor hospitals from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2000 and linked to concentrations of ambient air pollutants and weather variables. The logarithm of daily counts of hospitalization was regressed on the levels of pollutants, after adjusting for seasonal, weekly cycles, and weather variables using time series analysis with natural splines as smoothing functions.
Of all the pollutants considered, sulphur dioxide (SO2) had the strongest effect on cardiac hospitalization among the > or = 65 age group. The percentage increase in daily admission was 2.6% for current day sulphur dioxide level (95% CI: 0.5-6.4), 4.0% for 2-day mean level (95% CI: 0.1-6.9), and 5.6% (95% CI: 1.5-9.9) for 3-day mean level for an increase in interquartile range of 19.3 ppb. When particulate PM10 was included in the model, the contributing effect of sulphur dioxide remained significant for the > or = 65 age group for all three levels.
Short-term effects of sulphur dioxide are associated significantly to daily cardiac hospital admissions for people > or = 65 years of age living in Windsor. Since Windsor is a border city, additional monitoring and assessment is recommended to determine if air quality and resultant health effects have deteriorated since traffic congestion at the border has increased following the events of September 11, 2001.
Notes
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PubMed ID
15682690 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma in Windsor, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126951
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Jan-Feb;103(1):4-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Eric Lavigne
Paul J Villeneuve
Sabit Cakmak
Author Affiliation
Environmental Issues Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON. eric.lavigne@phac-aspc.gc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Jan-Feb;103(1):4-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Over Studies
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Ontario - epidemiology
Particle Size
Risk
Seasons
Abstract
The city of Windsor is recognized to have poor air quality in comparison with other Canadian cities. However, relatively few studies have evaluated associations between day-to-day fluctuations in air pollution levels and respiratory health in Windsor. In this study, we examined associations between short-term changes in ambient air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits for asthma in Windsor.
A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to 3,728 ED visits for asthma that occurred in Windsor area hospitals between 2002 and 2009. Daily air pollution levels for the region were estimated using Environment Canada's network of fixed-site monitors. ED visits were identified through the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS). Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression, and were adjusted for the confounding influence of daily number of influenza ED visits and weather variables using natural spline functions.
Statistically significant associations were observed between ambient air pollution levels and ED visits for asthma in Windsor. Effects were particularly pronounced among children 2 to 14 years of age between April and September. Namely, increases in the interquartile range with 1-day lagged exposure to SO2, NO2 and CO levels were associated with increased risks of an asthma visit of 19%, 25% and 36%, respectively.
Exposure in Windsor to ambient air pollution increases the risk of ED visits for asthma, particularly among children.
PubMed ID
22338320 View in PubMed
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169 records – page 1 of 17.